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Llop S.,Carlos III Health Institute ISCIII | Llop S.,CIBER ISCIII | Ballester F.,CIBER ISCIII | Ballester F.,University of Valencia | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2010

Background: Research has shown that prenatal exposure to air pollutants may have a detrimental effect on fetal development, with the strength of the relationship depending on the effect being studied. The evidence to date, however, is insufficient to establish a direct causal link between such exposure and preterm delivery. This study evaluates the specific effect of prenatal exposure to NO2 and benzene on preterm births. Methods: The population under study comprised 785 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA cohort in Valencia, Spain (2003-2005). Multiple regression models were used for mapping outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene levels throughout the area. Individual exposure was assigned as the estimated outdoor levels at each woman's home measured during each trimester as well as throughout the entire pregnancy. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated in order to assess the association between preterm birth and exposure to NO2 and benzene. The shape of the exposure-response curve between air pollution and the risk of preterm birth was analyzed with a flexible approach, introducing a natural cubic spline for air pollution levels into the model. Results: Pregnant women exposed to NO2 and benzene have an increased risk of preterm birth. This risk was shown to be significant when women were exposed to NO2 levels >46.2γg/m3 during the second and third trimesters as well as throughout the entire pregnancy and to benzene levels >2.7γg/m3 throughout the entire pregnancy. Conclusion: These results suggest that maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with preterm birth. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Llop S.,Carlos III Health Institute ISCIII | Llop S.,CIBER ISCIII | Ballester F.,CIBER ISCIII | Ballester F.,University of Valencia | And 10 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) comprise a large variety of toxic substances with ample distribution. While exposure to these toxins occurs mainly through diet, maternal POP levels may be influenced by certain sociodemographic, environmental, or lifestyle factors. This is important given that these substances may have adverse effects on fetal development. The aim of this study is to examine the sociodemographic, environmental, lifestyle, and dietary determinants of the levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), b-hexachlorocyclohexane (b-HCH), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 180) measured in the blood of pregnant women participating in a mother-child cohort study conducted in Valencia (Spain).The study population consisted of 541 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA (Childhood and the Environment) cohort (2004-2006). POP levels were determined in blood taken during the 12th week of pregnancy with the aid of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Sociodemographic, environmental, and dietary information was obtained from a questionnaire. Multivariate Tobit regression models were constructed in order to assess the association between POP levels and selected covariates.The results showed that all the women had detectable levels of at least one of these compounds while in 43% of the subjects, all eight compounds were detected. The compounds found in the greatest number of women were 4,4'-DDE (100%) and PCBs 153 and 180 (95%). The most important determinants of high POP levels were the mother's age, country of origin, increased body mass index, and number of weeks of breastfeeding after previous pregnancies. With regard to diet, 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE levels increased with the intake of meat, fruit, and cereal. PCB 153 levels increased with the intake of seafood. The levels of HCB, b-HCH, 4,4'-DDT, and 4,4'-DDE observed in this study were slightly higher than in other studies, whereas the PCB levels were similar. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Soto-Mendez M.J.,Center for the Studies of Sensory Impairment | Aguilera C.M.,University of Granada | Aguilera C.M.,CIBER ISCIII | Mesa M.D.,University of Granada | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background: A series of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic compounds act to protect cells from uncontrolled propagation of free radicals. It is poorly understood, though, to what extent and how their interaction is harmonized. Objectives: To explore associative interactions among a battery of urinary and blood biomarkers of oxidative stress and enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers of the antioxidant defense system in children from low income households. Methods: For this cross-sectional descriptive study, urine, red cells, and plasma were sampled in 82 preschool children attending three daycare centers in Quetzaltenango Guatemala. The urinary oxidative stress biomarkers studied were F2-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine. Red cell enzyme activities measured were: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Circulating non-enzymatic antioxidants selected were: retinol, tocopherols, β-carotene and coenzymes Q9 and Q10. Results: In a Spearman rank-order correlation hemi-matrix, of 55 paired combinations of the 11 biomarkers, 28 (51%) were significantly correlated among each other (p≤ 0.05), with the strongest association being retinol and tocopherols (r = 0.697, p<0.001), and 4 associations (9%) showed a trend (p> 0.5 to ≤ 0.10). F2-isoprostanes showed the greatest number of cross-associations, having significant interactions with 8 of the 10 remaining biomarkers. Goodness-of-fit modeling improved or maintained the r value for 24 of the significant interactions and for one of the 5 borderline associations. Multiple regression backward stepwise analysis indicated that plasma retinol, β-carotene and coenzyme Q10 were independent predictors of urinary F2-isoprostanes. Conclusion: Numerous significant associations resulted among biomarkers of oxidation and responders to oxidation. Interesting findings were the apparent patterns of harmonious interactions among the elements of the oxidation-antioxidation systems in this population. © 2016 Soto-Méndez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Perez S.,University of Vigo | Tato R.,University Hospital of Pontevedra | Cabrera J.J.,University of Vigo | Lopez A.,Lucus Augusti Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2016

We describe Zika virus (ZIKV) vertical transmission in an imported case in Spain, in a 17-week pregnant woman. ZIKV IgG, IgM and RNA were detected in serum in week 17. At 19 weeks, ultrasound scan revealed fetal malformations and ZIKV was detected in the amniotic fluid. Pregnancy was terminated at week 21; autopsy of the fetus revealed bilateral hydrocephalus, brain microcalcifications and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. ZIKV was detected in the umbilical cord and brain tissue. © 2016, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

Llop S.,Carlos III Health Institute ISCIII | Llop S.,CIBER ISCIII | Aguinagalde X.,11 Health | Vioque J.,CIBER ISCIII | And 21 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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