Health Innovations Research Institute

Melbourne, Australia

Health Innovations Research Institute

Melbourne, Australia
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Abbiss C.R.,Edith Cowan University | Abbiss C.R.,Australian Institute of Sport | Abbiss C.R.,Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization | Karagounis L.G.,Health Innovations Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

Single-leg cycling may enhance the peripheral adaptations of skeletal muscle to a greater extent than double-leg cycling. The purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of 3 wk of high-intensity single-and double-leg cycle training on markers of oxidative potential and muscle metabolism and exercise performance. In a crossover design, nine trained cyclists (78 ± 7 kg body wt, 59 ± 5 ml kg-1 min -1 maximal O2 consumption) performed an incremental cycling test and a 16-km cycling time trial before and after 3 wk of double-leg and counterweighted single-leg cycle training (2 training sessions per week). Training involved three (double) or six (single) maximal 4-min intervals with 6 min of recovery. Mean power output during the single-leg intervals was more than half that during the double-leg intervals (198 ± 29 vs. 344 ± 38 W, P < 0.05). Skeletal muscle biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis revealed a training-induced increase in Thr172-phosphorylated 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase α-subunit for both groups (P < 0.05). However, the increase in cytochrome c oxidase subunits II and IV and GLUT-4 protein concentration was greater following single-than double-leg cycling (P < 0.05). Training-induced improvements in maximal O2 consumption (3.9 ± 6.2% vs. 0.6 ± 3.6%) and time-trial performance (1.3 ± 0.5% vs. 2.3 ± 4.2%) were similar following both interventions. We conclude that short-term high-intensity single-leg cycle training can elicit greater enhancement in the metabolic and oxidative potential of skeletal muscle than traditional double-leg cycling. Single-leg cycling may therefore provide a valuable training stimulus for trained and clinical populations. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.


News Article | December 15, 2015
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

INTEGRA reports on how researchers at the Health Innovation Research Institute at RMIT University (Bundoora, Australia) are using VIAFLO II electronic pipettes in conjunction with a VIAFLO ASSIST to scale-up their screening of venoms and small compounds. The Health Innovations Research Institute (HIRi) is an RMIT University initiative that seeks to address key health issues facing Australia in the 21st century, with research programs that examine how the human body functions at a molecular and cellular level. This research is targeted to provide innovative therapeutic strategies to improve the health and wellbeing of people in Australia and around the world. Bill Darby, a Researcher at HIRi, commented "We approached INTEGRA's Australian distributor (BioTools Pty Ltd.) for a solution to scale-up our screening of venoms and small compounds in both 96- and 384-well plates. Following a demonstration we found that the VIAFLO ASSIST pipetting assistant met our required criteria of a cost effective and easy to use pipetting solution, which lead us to purchase the ASSIST and 3 VIAFLO II multichannel pipettes". Mr Darby added "Since its introduction, the system has been running perfectly and we have been able to achieve the scaling-up we required. The ASSIST has delivered more accurate and precise pipetting results that have improved our assay results. Another significant benefit is that the ASSIST is very compact and easily fits in our lab hood. We have also found that the versatility of the VIAFLO II pipettes has proven especially useful for handling complicated layouts in 384-well plates". INTEGRA Biosciences Corp., 603 578 5800, www.integra-bioscience.com


Muhammad I.,RMIT University | Teoh S.Y.,RMIT University | Wickramasinghe N.,Health Innovations Research Institute
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications | Year: 2013

Healthcare systems around the globe are facing a number of challenges. Thus Increasing focus is being placed on constructing appropriate healthcare reforms which are attempting to address how to tackle these challenges. A critical enabler in these reforms is the adoption of an e-health solution. Such e-health solutions are not only expensive and complex endeavours, but also have far reaching implications. Given that the implementation and adoption of these e-health solutions is so important, not to mention also requiring a substantial investment in various resources such as time and money, it is therefore essential to ensure their success. The following proffers a socio-technical analysis as an appropriate strategy to ensure more successful outcomes. An exemplar case study of the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR), the chosen e-health solution by the Australian government is provided to illustrate the benefits such an analysis might provide. Copyright © 2013, IGI Global.


Todorova N.,Health Innovations Research Institute | Makarucha A.J.,Health Innovations Research Institute | Hine N.D.M.,Imperial College London | Mostofi A.A.,Imperial College London | Yarovsky I.,Health Innovations Research Institute
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2013

Experimental studies have demonstrated that nanoparticles can affect the rate of protein self-assembly, possibly interfering with the development of protein misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion disease caused by aggregation and fibril formation of amyloid-prone proteins. We employ classical molecular dynamics simulations and large-scale density functional theory calculations to investigate the effects of nanomaterials on the structure, dynamics and binding of an amyloidogenic peptide apoC-II(60-70). We show that the binding affinity of this peptide to carbonaceous nanomaterials such as C60, nanotubes and graphene decreases with increasing nanoparticle curvature. Strong binding is facilitated by the large contact area available for π-stacking between the aromatic residues of the peptide and the extended surfaces of graphene and the nanotube. The highly curved fullerene surface exhibits reduced efficiency for π-stacking but promotes increased peptide dynamics. We postulate that the increase in conformational dynamics of the amyloid peptide can be unfavorable for the formation of fibril competent structures. In contrast, extended fibril forming peptide conformations are promoted by the nanotube and graphene surfaces which can provide a template for fibril-growth. © 2013 Todorova et al.


Makarucha A.J.,Health Innovations Research Institute | Todorova N.,Health Innovations Research Institute | Yarovsky I.,Health Innovations Research Institute
Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ICONN 2014 | Year: 2014

The potential for nanomaterials to interact with biological molecules has been under significant scrutiny, specifically, in their possible role as scaffolds for protein aggregation that can result in various amyloid diseases. Here, we employed classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of graphitic carbon nanomaterials on the structure, dynamics and dissociation pathway of a previously identified preformed dimer of amyloidogenic apoC-II(60-70) peptide [1, 2]. Our results showed the dimer interacting with the graphitic nanoparticles through π-π interactions. Free energy of dissociation calculations showed that the dimer is weakly bound to the C60 nanoparticle, while it is more strongly interacting with the elongated nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotube and graphene. The significant curvature of the C60 surface induced an increase in peptide mobility, which contributed to the weaker binding and dissociation of the dimer from the C60 surface. This suggests that C60 can act as a potential inhibitor for fibril growth. On the other hand, the stronger interactions between the elongated carbon nanomaterials and the apoC-II(60-70) dimer resulted in a separation of the dimer with one strand remaining adsorbed on the surface of the nanomaterial during the in-silico pull-off experiment. This suggests that the interaction between the bound peptide and the flat graphitic surfaces is stronger than the interactions between the peptide strands themselves. Our results suggest that flat surface carbon nanomaterials present favorable binding substrates for aromatic-rich peptides, and thus have the ability to act as templates to mediate peptide self-assembly and fibril growth. © 2014 IEEE.


May B.H.,Health Innovations Research Institute | Lu C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Lu C.,Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine | Lu Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies | Year: 2013

Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian (" Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine" ), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research. © 2013 .


Zhang C.S.,Health Innovations Research Institute | Zhang C.S.,RMIT University | Pannirselvan M.,RMIT University | Xue C.C.,Health Innovations Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Acupuncture in Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Most popular single-use acupuncture needles consist of a stainless steel shaft with a handle made of copper coil or plastic stick. Objectives: To determine the strengths and weaknesses of these two handle types for needle buckling. Methods: The buckling load for acupuncture needles with these two different handle types was determined using a digital scale, and the stiffness of stainless steel wires used in different types of acupuncture needles was measured using a Dynamic Mechanical Analysis machine. Results: This study showed that an acupuncture needle with a copper coil handle was far more susceptible to buckling than a needle with a plastic stick handle. The average buckling force of acupuncture needles with plastic stick handles was 46.7% higher than that with copper coil handles for needles of 0.25 mmx30 mm, and 30.8% higher for needles of 0.25 mmx60 mm. Replacing a copper coil handle with a plastic stick handle could save about 100 tonnes of copper wires and 20 million metres of medical grade stainless steel wire a year worldwide. Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that the common practice of using coiled copper for handles on acupuncture needles should be re-evaluated. Replacing a copper coil handle with a plastic stick handle would significantly reduce needle buckling and improve patient comfort and safety. This would also reduce the consumption of copper and medical grade stainless steel wire considerably. © 2014, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Health Innovations Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS computational biology | Year: 2013

Experimental studies have demonstrated that nanoparticles can affect the rate of protein self-assembly, possibly interfering with the development of protein misfolding diseases such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons and prion disease caused by aggregation and fibril formation of amyloid-prone proteins. We employ classical molecular dynamics simulations and large-scale density functional theory calculations to investigate the effects of nanomaterials on the structure, dynamics and binding of an amyloidogenic peptide apoC-II(60-70). We show that the binding affinity of this peptide to carbonaceous nanomaterials such as C60, nanotubes and graphene decreases with increasing nanoparticle curvature. Strong binding is facilitated by the large contact area available for -stacking between the aromatic residues of the peptide and the extended surfaces of graphene and the nanotube. The highly curved fullerene surface exhibits reduced efficiency for -stacking but promotes increased peptide dynamics. We postulate that the increase in conformational dynamics of the amyloid peptide can be unfavorable for the formation of fibril competent structures. In contrast, extended fibril forming peptide conformations are promoted by the nanotube and graphene surfaces which can provide a template for fibril-growth.


PubMed | Health Innovations Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biogerontology | Year: 2012

Natural products are the basis of many systems of traditional medicine and continue to provide sources for new drugs. Ethnobiological approaches to drug discovery that have proven productive in the past include the investigation of traditional medical literatures. This study describes a broadly applicable method for locating, selecting and evaluating citations in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine literature of the dynastic period (until 1911) for specific symptoms or disorders. This methodology is applied to evaluate multi-herb formulae for age-related dementia and memory impairment. Of the 174 multi-herb formulae located in the searches, 19 were for disorders broadly consistent with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and/or Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). These appeared in books written between c. 650 to 1911. Of the 176 herbs that appeared in these 19 formulae, those with the highest frequencies were tabulated and hierarchical cluster analysis was undertaken. Chinese pharmacopoeias were consulted to determine the botanical identity of the herbs and also which herbs within the formulas were specific for memory disorders. This study found that the top ten herbs, in terms of frequency of inclusion in multi-herb formulae specific for age-related memory disorders, were all listed in the pharmacopoeias for memory disorders and these formed three clusters. The herbs identified in this study may warrant further experimental and clinical evaluation both individually and in combination.


PubMed | Health Innovations Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology | Year: 2013

Suramin is a polysulfonated naphthylurea with antiparasitic and potential antineoplastic activity. Suramins pharmacological actions, which have not yet been fully elucidated, include antagonism of the action of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at its receptor. We investigated the effects of suramin on PDGF-stimulated proteoglycan synthesis.Human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were incubated in the presence and absence of PDGF and suramin with [(3) H]thymidine or (35) SO4 as radiolabels. Mitogenic response was determined by [(3) H]thymidine incorporation. PDGF receptor phosphorylation was assessed by western blotting. Proteoglycan size and glycosaminoglycan chain synthesis and size were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Alphascreen phosphotyrosine assay kit was used to investigate PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition by suramin.Suramin decreased PDGF-stimulated proliferation, proteoglycan synthesis and GAG chain hyperelongation. Suramin also directly inhibited PDGF receptor kinase activity as well as PDGF receptor phosphorylation in intact VSMCs.These data show that inhibition of PDGF receptor phosphorylation in intact cells is necessary to define a fully active PDGF antagonist. They also confirm that PDGF receptor kinase activity is necessary for PDGF-mediated atherogenic changes in proteoglycan synthesis and support efforts to develop PDGF receptor antagonists as potential anti-atherosclerotic agents.

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