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Sandpoint, ID, United States

Wu S.X.,Health Elements
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University | Year: 2011

To investigate the changes in the expressions of Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) and cellular-FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in the articular cartilage of patients with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and the role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of KBD. The cartilage samples were collected from patients with established diagnosis of KBD and osteoarthritis and from healthy control subjects undergoing amputation due to traffic accidents. The expressions of Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) and cellular-FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in the cartilage were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the positive chondrocytes were counted in different layers of the articular cartilage under microscope. The positivity rates of FADD in the middle layer of articular cartilage from patients with KBD [(28.68∓2.19)%] and osteoarthritis [(35.40∓2.34)%] were significantly higher than that in normal cartilage [(10.51∓5.02)%, F=16.245, P=0.000], but the rates in the upper and deeper layers were comparable among the 3 groups (P=0.206-0.761). In KBD cartilage, FADD expression was the highest in the middle layer [(28.68∓5.38)%] followed by the deeper layer [(17.94∓8.38)%]. Compared with the healthy controls, KBD and osteoarthritis patients showed significantly higher FLIP expression in the upper layer of the cartilage (F=5.929, P=0.018) but similar expressions in middle and deeper layers. KBD patients have significant increased FADD expression in the middle layer but decreased FLIP expression in the upper layer of the cartilage, suggesting that the death receptor pathway and its regulators play important roles in the pathogenesis of KBD. Source

Kutalek R.,Medical University of Vienna | Wewalka G.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety AGES | Gundacker C.,Medical University of Vienna | Auer H.,Medical University of Vienna | And 6 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

The practice of geophagy (soil-eating) is widespread among pregnant and breast-feeding women in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess some of the potential risks accompanying the consumption of geophagic material, we analysed contamination with bacteria, fungi, and geohelminths as well as heavy metals (lead, mercury and cadmium) in 88 African geophagic soil samples, which were purchased in Central, West and East Africa, Europe and the United States. Median microbial viable counts of positive samples were 440 cfu/g (maximum 120 000 cfu/g). The median metal concentrations were 40 mg/kg lead (up to 148 mg/kg), 0.05 mg/kg mercury (up to 0.64 mg/kg), and 0.055 mg/kg cadmium (maximum 0.57 mg/kg). No geohelminth eggs were found in these samples. Our results suggest that geophagic soil samples can be highly contaminated with microbes and may contain high levels of lead. Geophagy, however, is not a cause of adult helminth infection. The periodic consumption of geophagic materials at high dosages might be problematic particularly during pregnancy. © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Sager M.,Health Elements | Kralik M.,Environment Agency Austria
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2012

Sediment samples and soils along the coast line of the Adriatic Sea were sampled along a transect near the coast line at Zadar/Croatia, ranging from north-western suburbs via the historical centre and the industrial area to south-east suburbs. The sediments were dominated by carbonates and clay minerals, and contaminations with Cd-Cu-Pb-Zn-TOC (total organic carbon) at the historical centre and the industrial site were detected, as well as P and Mo input at the mouth of a small creek, probably from agriculture. No trends between the composition of surface and subsurface sea sediments were seen. At the historic harbour site, total element concentrations versus grain size showed a minimum in the fine silt fraction for most of the elements analysed. The soil samples behind the shoreline were not carbonaceous, but dominated by Fe-Al- oxides, some contained high levels of Be-Cd-Cu-Sn-Zn. Surprisingly, high TOC values within the soils might be assigned to human impacts, not to humus. Contrary to data from street dust samples from Seoul city/Korea, which were measured within our laboratory at the same time, Pt-Ir-Au were at ambient levels due to the limited use of catalysts in cars in the Zadar area at the time of sampling. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Sager M.,Health Elements
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S | Year: 2010

Standard digestion and multielement methods were tested for routine application to analyze selected elements of low bioactivity (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Rb, Cs and Ti) in food and plant samples by ICP-OES and ICP-MS methods. For ICP-OES, medium power input resulted in better detection limits than high power. Sc and Ti seemed more reliable from the ICP-OES, but it was not sensitive enough to detect Y, La, Ce and Cs in a biomatrix at ambient levels. Small Rb concentrations were occasionally swallowed by a U-shaped background. The ICP-MS as the more sensitive method was preferable for the analysis of Y, La, Ce, Rb and Cs, using In-115 as an internal standard. Digests of green plants, feed and cheese samples were tested for recoveries of 2 μg and 4 μg each. The classical HNO 3-HClO 4 digestion in glass cannot be recommended for these elements. Quantitative recoveries of Y, La, Sc, Ce and Ti were obtained from microwave assisted digestions with HNO 3-HF in pressure bombs; whereas green plants needed some hydrofluoric acid, this was not the case for the cheese samples. Storing the fluoride containing digests in glass yielded significant blanks. The microwave assisted digest with KClO 3-HNO 3 yielded good recoveries of all these elements from green plants and cheese, but suffered from Rb-blanks. Recently obtained data for green plants, cheese and chocolates are given, and compared with older unpublished data from Austrian coals. Source

Health Elements | Date: 2015-06-23

Dietary supplements containing enzyme catalase.

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