Olinger C.M.,Laboratoires Reunis |
Weicherding P.,Health Directorate |
Schuh J.,Laboratoires Reunis |
van Reeth K.,Ghent University
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011
Serologic studies for swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in humans with occupational exposure to swine have been reported from the Americas but not from Europe. We compared levels of neutralizing antibodies against 3 influenza viruses-pandemic (H1N1) 2009, an avian-like enzootic subtype H1N1 SIV, and a 2007-08 seasonal subtype H1N1-in 211 persons with swine contact and 224 matched controls in Luxembourg. Persons whose profession involved contact with swine had more neutralizing antibodies against SIV and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus than did the controls. Controls also had antibodies against these viruses although exposure to them was unlikely. Antibodies against SIV and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus correlated with each other but not with seasonal subtype H1N1 virus. Sequential exposure to variants of seasonal influenza (H1N1) viruses may have increased chances for serologic cross-reactivity with antigenically distinct viruses. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which serologic responses correlate with infection.
PubMed | Health Directorate, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization and United Nations Childrens Fund Somalia
Type: | Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases | Year: 2014
For >2 decades, conflicts and recurrent natural disasters have maintained Somalia in a chronic humanitarian crisis. For nearly 5 years, 1 million children <10 years have not had access to lifesaving health services, including vaccination, resulting in the accumulation by 2012 of the largest geographically concentrated cohort of unvaccinated children in the world. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk, and program response to what is now known as the 2013 wild poliovirus (WPV) outbreak in Somalia and highlights the challenges that the program will face in making Somalia free of polio once again.A case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was defined as a child <15 years of age with sudden onset of fever and paralysis. Polio cases were defined as AFP cases with stool specimens positive for WPV.From 9 May to 31 December 2013, 189 cases of WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reported from 46 districts of Somalia; 42% were from Banadir region (Mogadishu), 60% were males, and 93% were <5 years of age. All Somalian polio cases belonged to cluster N5A, which is known to have been circulating in northern Nigeria since 2011. In response to the outbreak, 8 supplementary immunization activities were conducted with oral polio vaccine (OPV; trivalent OPV was used initially, followed subsequently by bivalent OPV) targeting various age groups, including children aged <5 years, children aged <10 years, and individuals of any age.The current polio outbreak erupted after a polio-free period of >6 years (the last case was reported in March 2007). Somalia interrupted indigenous WPV transmission in 2002, was removed from the list of polio-endemic countries a year later, and has since demonstrated its ability to control polio outbreaks resulting from importation. This outbreak reiterates that the threat of large polio outbreaks resulting from WPV importation will remain constant unless polio transmission is interrupted in the remaining polio-endemic countries.
PubMed | Health Directorate, U.S. National Institute on Aging, Eo Galliera Hospital, University of Bari and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of cardiology | Year: 2016
Clinical decision-making for statin treatment in older patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is under debate, particularly in community-dwelling frail patients at high risk of death. In this retrospective observational study on 2,597 community-dwelling patients aged 65years with a previous hospitalization for CAD, we estimated mortality risk assessed with the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), based on the Standardized Multidimensional Assessment Schedule for Adults and Aged Persons (SVaMA), used to determine accessibility to homecare services/nursing home admission in 2005 to 2013 in the Padua Health District, Veneto, Italy. Participants were categorized as having mild (MPI-SVaMA-1), moderate (MPI-SVaMA-2), and high (MPI-SVaMA-3) baseline mortality risk, and propensity score-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 3-year mortality rate were calculated according to statin treatment in these subgroups. Greater MPI-SVaMA scores were associated with lower rates of statin treatment and higher 3-year mortality rate (MPI-SVaMA-1= 23.4%; MPI-SVaMA-2= 39.1%; MPI-SVaMA-3= 76.2%). After adjusting for propensity score quintiles, statin treatment was associated with lower 3-year mortality risk irrespective of MPI-SVaMA group (HRs [95% confidence intervals] 0.45 [0.37 to 0.55], 0.44 [0.36 to 0.53], and 0.28 [0.21 to 0.39] in MPI-SVaMA-1, -2, and -3 groups, respectively [interaction test p= 0.202]). Subgroup analyses showed that statin treatment was also beneficial irrespective of age (HRs [95% confidence intervals] 0.38 [0.27 to 0.53], 0.45 [0.38 to 0.54], and 0.44 [0.37 to 0.54] in 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85 year age groups, respectively [interaction test p= 0.597]). In conclusion, in community-dwelling frail older patients with CAD, statin treatment was significantly associated with reduced 3-year mortality rate irrespective of age and multidimensional impairment, although the frailest patients were less likely to be treated with statins.
Cavallaro L.G.,S Martino Hospital |
Monica F.,S Bassiano Hospital |
Germana B.,S Martino Hospital |
Marin R.,Hospital of Dolo VE |
And 2 more authors.
Digestive and Liver Disease | Year: 2014
Background: Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most frequent emergency for gastroenterologists. Despite advances in management, an improvement in mortality is still not evident. Aim: Determining time trends of gastrointestinal bleeding hospitalization and outcomes from 2001 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (Italy). Patients and methods: Data of patients admitted with gastrointestinal bleeding from Veneto regional discharge records were retrospectively evaluated. Chi-squared and multivariate logistic regression model were used. Results: Overall, 44,343 patients (mean age 64.2. ±. 8.6 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding were analysed: 23,450 (52.9%) had upper, 13,800 (31.1%) lower, and 7093 (16%) undefined gastrointestinal bleeding. Admission rate decreased from 108.0 per 100,000 in 2001 to 80.7 in 2010, mainly owing to a decrease in upper gastrointestinal bleeding (64.4 to 35.9 per 100,000, p<. 0.05). Reductions in hospital fatality rate (from 5.3% to 3%, p<. 0.05), length of hospital stay (from 9.3 to 8.7 days, p<. 0.05), and need for surgery (from 5.6% to 5%, p<. 0.05) were observed. Surgery (OR: 2.97, 95% CI: 2.59-3.41) and undefined gastrointestinal bleeding (OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 2.62-3.19) were found to be risk factors for mortality. Conclusions: Patient admissions for gastrointestinal bleeding decreased significantly over the years, owing to a decrease in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Improved outcomes could be related to regional dedicated clinical gastroenterological management. © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l.
Levin M.,University of Cape Town |
Mathema H.,University of Cape Town |
Stinson K.,University of Cape Town |
Jennings K.,Health Directorate
South African Medical Journal | Year: 2012
Objectives. To explore the acceptability and feasibility of routine HIV screening in children at primary healthcare clinics and ascertain the prevalence of previously undiagnosed HIV infection in 17-24-month-old children accessing curative and routine services. Methods. A survey was conducted in 4 primary health clinics in the western sub-district of Cape Town. Rapid HIV screening of 17-24-monthold children was performed for consenting caregiver- child pairs. Data on demographics, child health and antenatal history were collected using questionnaires. Results. During recruitment, 358 children (72%) were tested for HIV infection. Most of the children (95.8%) were accompanied by a parent. The prevalence of reported HIV exposure among children was 21% (107/499). Of these, 3 had previously confirmed HIV infection; 1 was reportedly confirmed by a 6-week HIV test, and the other 2 probably contracted the virus via late postpartum transmission. The overall transmission rate was 3.5% (3/86) and the confirmed proportion of HIV-infected children was 0.8% (3/361). No previously unknown HIV infection was detected. Conclusions. Programmes to prevent mother-to-child transmission are effective, but at-risk infants who test negative at 6 weeks should be monitored for subsequent seroconversion. Parents of HIV-exposed infants are more likely to permit (re)testing of their infants than those whose offspring are not at risk. Routine HIV testing of children is feasible and acceptable at primary level, but may require additional resources to achieve universal coverage. Routine screening at an earlier age may detect previously undiagnosed HIV infection.
PubMed | S Bassiano Hospital, S Martino Hospital, University of Padua, Health Directorate and Hospital of Dolo VE
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver | Year: 2014
Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most frequent emergency for gastroenterologists. Despite advances in management, an improvement in mortality is still not evident.Determining time trends of gastrointestinal bleeding hospitalization and outcomes from 2001 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (Italy).Data of patients admitted with gastrointestinal bleeding from Veneto regional discharge records were retrospectively evaluated. Chi-squared and multivariate logistic regression model were used.Overall, 44,343 patients (mean age 64.2 8.6 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding were analysed: 23,450 (52.9%) had upper, 13,800 (31.1%) lower, and 7093 (16%) undefined gastrointestinal bleeding. Admission rate decreased from 108.0 per 100,000 in 2001 to 80.7 in 2010, mainly owing to a decrease in upper gastrointestinal bleeding (64.4 to 35.9 per 100,000, p<0.05). Reductions in hospital fatality rate (from 5.3% to 3%, p<0.05), length of hospital stay (from 9.3 to 8.7 days, p<0.05), and need for surgery (from 5.6% to 5%, p<0.05) were observed. Surgery (OR: 2.97, 95% CI: 2.59-3.41) and undefined gastrointestinal bleeding (OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 2.62-3.19) were found to be risk factors for mortality.Patient admissions for gastrointestinal bleeding decreased significantly over the years, owing to a decrease in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Improved outcomes could be related to regional dedicated clinical gastroenterological management.
Aita M.,University of Udine |
Belvedere O.,University of Udine |
Belvedere O.,York Teaching Hospital |
De Carlo E.,University of Udine |
And 6 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2013
Background: Chemotherapy administration is a high-risk process. Aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, type, preventability, as well as potential and actual severity of outpatient chemotherapy prescribing errors in an Oncology Department where electronic prescribing is used. Methods. Up to three electronic prescriptions per patient record were selected from the clinical records of consecutive patients who received cytotoxic chemotherapy between January 2007 and December 2008. Wrong prescriptions were classified as incomplete, incorrect or inappropriate. Error preventability was classified using a four-point scale. Severity was defined according to the Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Severity Scale. Results: Eight hundred and thirty-five prescriptions were eligible. The overall error rate was 20%. Excluding systematic errors (i.e. errors due to an initially faulty implementation of chemotherapy protocols into computerized dictionaries) from the analysis, the error rate decreased to 8%. Incomplete prescriptions were the majority. Most errors were deemed definitely preventable. According to error presumptive potential for damage, 72% were classified as minor; only 3% had the potential to produce major or catastrophic injury. Sixty-eight percent were classified as near misses; adverse drug events had no or little effect on clinical outcome. Conclusions: Chemotherapy prescribing errors may arise even using electronic prescribing. Although periodic audits may be useful to detect common errors and guide corrective actions, it is crucial to get the computerized physician order entry system and set-ups correct before implementation. © 2013 Aita et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
PubMed | Health Directorate, Eo Galliera Hospital, University of Bari, Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
Older adults are often excluded from clinical trials. Decision making for administration of statins to older patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is under debate, particularly in frail older patients with comorbidity and high mortality risk. We tested the hypothesis that statin treatment in older patients with DM was differentially effective across strata of mortality risk assessed by the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), based on information collected with the Standardized Multidimensional Assessment Schedule for Adults and Aged Persons (SVaMA).In this retrospective observational study, we estimated the mortality risk in 1712 community-dwelling subjects with DM 65 years who underwent a SVaMA evaluation to establish accessibility to homecare services/nursing home admission from 2005 to 2013 in the Padova Health District, Italy. Mild (MPI-SVaMA-1), moderate (MPI-SVaMA-2), and high (MPI-SVaMA-3) risk of mortality at baseline and propensity score-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of three-year mortality were calculated according to statin treatment.Higher MPI-SVaMA scores were associated with lower rates of statin treatment (MPI-SVaMA-1 = 39% vs MPI-SVaMA-2 = 36% vs MPI-SVaMA-3 = 24.9%. p<0.001) and higher three-year mortality (MPI-SVaMA-1 = 12.9% vs MPI-SVaMA-2 = 24% vs MPI-SVaMA-3 = 34.4%, p<0.001). After adjustment for propensity score quintiles, statin treatment was significantly associated with lower three-year mortality irrespective of MPI-SVaMA group (interaction test p = 0.303). HRs [95% confidence interval (CI)] were 0.19 (0.14-0.27), 0.28 (0.21-0.36), and 0.26 (0.20-0.34) in the MPI-SVaMA-1, MPI-SVaMA-2, and MPI-SVaMA-3 groups, respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that statin treatment was also beneficial irrespective of age. HRs (95% CI) were 0.21 (0.15-0.31), 0.26 (0.20-0.33), and 0.26 (0.20-0.35) among patients aged 65-74, 75-84, and 85 years, respectively (interaction test p=0.812).Statin treatment was significantly associated with reduced three-year mortality independently of age and multidimensional impairment in community-dwelling frail older patients with DM.
Amin T.T.,Cairo University |
Al-Hammam A.M.,Family and Community Medicine |
AlMulhim N.A.,King Faisal University |
Al-Hayan M.I.,King Faisal University |
And 5 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014
Background: There is a scarcity of information about the proportion of the adult Saudi population that meet the recommended guidelines of physical activity (PA) to reduce cancer risk. Moreover, their awareness about the role of PA in cancer prevention is unclear. Objectives: This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating the proportion of adult Saudis meeting the PA guidelines, speciically those recommended by American Cancer Society (ACS) for cancer prevention, and to assess the public awareness about the role of PA in cancer prevention. Materials and Methods: Using a multistage sampling method, 2,127 adult Saudis of both genders were recruited from 6 urban and 4 rural primary health care centers in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Participants were personally interviewed to gather information about their sociodemographic characteristics, searching activity about PA and cancer, and the time spent in leisure time PA (moderate and vigorous)/week using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire with show cards. Finally, items about the role of PA in cancer risk reduction were inquired. Results: Of the included participants, 11.6% met the recommendations for cancer prevention (≥45 minutes of moderate-vigorous PA activity/≥5 days/week or 225 minutes/week). Multivariate regression showed that being male (AOR=1.49, CI=1.09-2.06), <20 years of age (AOR=3.11, CI=2.03-4.76), and unemployed (AOR=2.22, CI=1.57-3.18) were signiicant predictors for meeting PA recommendations for cancer prevention. Only 11.4% of the sample indicated correctly the frequency and duration of PA required for an average adult to be physically active and while >70% of them indicated the role of PA in prevention of hypertension, coronary heart disease and lowering elevated blood cholesterol, only 18.6% and 21.7% correctly mentioned the role of PA in reducing colon and breast cancer risk, respectively. Poor knowledge was found among those with less than college education and aged ≥50 years. The level of knowledge was signiicantly positively correlated with total leisure time PA of the participants. Conclusions: A minority of adult Saudis in Al Hassa was aware about the role of PA in cancer prevention and engaged in suficient LTPA for cancer risk reduction beneits, highlighting the need for public health actions to include policies and programs that address factors deterring their participation in LTPA and increasing their awareness with remedies to manage the prevalent misconceptions.
Vitacca M.,Respiratory Unit |
Paneroni M.,Respiratory Unit |
Comini L.,Health Directorate |
Bianchi L.,Respiratory Unit
Minerva Psichiatrica | Year: 2013
Aim. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the long-lasting effects of physical activity on exercise capacity in patients with mental disorders within a Community Residential Service. Methods. Eleven patients underwent tri-weekly sessions of a structured program of physical training for a period of 6-months (T6) followed by a 6-month period of program discontinuation (T12). During physical training patients performed different types of exercises mainly identified as free walking and gym sessions. At the end of the structured physical training, a period of discontinuation was proposed. During this time patients were free to choose whether to continue physical activity alone or stop altogether. Six-minute walking test (6MWT), body weight, waist circumference, steps counts, and quality of life were evaluated in all patients at baseline (T0), T6 and T12. At T6 adherence, training effect during different physical activities (free walking and gym sessions), and patients and counsellors satisfaction were also measured. Results. Six-minute walking distance increased significantly at T6 vs. TO (+ 69 (SD57) meters; P<0.002), this increase was maintained at T12. Heart rate (P<0.02) and oxygen saturation (P<0.03) significantly improved only at T6. Patients attended 82.5% of walking sessions and 63% of gym sessions, walking offered the best training effect. Satisfaction with the program by both patients and counsellors was high. Conclusion. In patients with mental disorders, a structured 6-month supervised physical activities program improves exercise tolerance mainly through walking with high adherence. This gain is maintained for a long time. Physical training is well accepted by both patients and counsellors.