Edmonds E.W.,Health Center |
Polousky J.,Rocky Mountain Hospital for Children
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2013
Background: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) was first described to provide an explanation for the nontraumatic development of loose bodies within a joint. Despite many reports on the subject, there remains no clear understanding of the etiology, natural history, or treatment. Questions/purposes: This review was undertaken to delineate (1) the etiology of OCD; (2) the presentation and locations; (3) the most appropriate imaging modalities; and (4) the most effective treatment strategies. Methods: We reviewed the English literature using a database compiled from a Medline search for "osteochondritis dissecans". We identified 1716 publications, 1246 of which were in English. After exclusions, we reviewed 748 articles and of these cited 85. The observations of each study were then synthesized into this report. Results: There appears to be no consensus concerning the etiology of OCD lesions. The presentations and locations are variable, but the knee, ankle, and elbow are most commonly involved. Although plain film assessment is important in OCD, there appears to be a trend toward the use of MRI, but the preferred sequences are in evolution. We found no consensus on the treatment of these lesions, related in part to the lack of agreement of methods for assessing outcomes. Conclusions: Despite more than a century of study, we have made little advancement in our understanding of OCD. A study group has been formed to address this issue and actively seeks to answer these unknown issues regarding OCD. © 2012 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®.
Torti S.V.,Health Center |
Torti F.M.,University of Connecticut Health Center
Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis | Year: 2013
Despite many recent advances, breast cancer remains a clinical challenge. Current issues include improving prognostic evaluation and increasing therapeutic options for women whose tumors are refractory to current frontline therapies. Iron metabolism is frequently disrupted in breast cancer, and may offer an opportunity to address these challenges. Iron enhances breast tumor initiation, growth and metastases. Iron may contribute to breast tumor initiation by promoting redox cycling of estrogen metabolites. Up-regulation of iron import and down-regulation of iron export may enable breast cancer cells to acquire and retain excess iron. Alterations in iron metabolism in macrophages and other cells of the tumor microenvironment may also foster breast tumor growth. Expression of iron metabolic genes in breast tumors is predictive of breast cancer prognosis. Iron chelators and other strategies designed to limit iron may have therapeutic value in breast cancer. The dependence of breast cancer on iron presents rich opportunities for improved prognostic evaluation and therapeutic intervention. © 2013 by Begell House, Inc.
Mol B.W.J.,University of Adelaide |
Roberts C.T.,University of Adelaide |
Thangaratinam S.,Queen Mary, University of London |
Magee L.A.,Health Center |
And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2016
Pre-eclampsia affects 3-5% of pregnancies and is traditionally diagnosed by the combined presentation of high blood pressure and proteinuria. New definitions also include maternal organ dysfunction, such as renal insufficiency, liver involvement, neurological or haematological complications, uteroplacental dysfunction, or fetal growth restriction. When left untreated, pre-eclampsia can be lethal, and in low-resource settings, this disorder is one of the main causes of maternal and child mortality. In the absence of curative treatment, the management of pre-eclampsia involves stabilisation of the mother and fetus, followed by delivery at an optimal time. Although algorithms to predict pre-eclampsia are promising, they have yet to become validated. Simple preventive measures, such as low-dose aspirin, calcium, and diet and lifestyle interventions, show potential but small benefit. Because pre-eclampsia predisposes mothers to cardiovascular disease later in life, pregnancy is also a window for future health. A collaborative approach to discovery and assessment of the available treatments will hasten our understanding of pre-eclampsia and is an effort much needed by the women and babies affected by its complications. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Uman L.S.,Health Center
Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2011
With an ever-increasing plethora of studies being published in the health sciences, it is challenging if not impossible for busy clinicians and researchers alike to keep up with the literature. Reviews summarizing the outcomes of various intervention trials are therefore an extremely efficient method for obtaining the "bottom line" about what works and what doesn't.
Johnston C.C.,McGill University |
Campbell-Yeo M.,Health Center
Pain | Year: 2011
Pain processing and management in neonates, especially preterm neonates, differs from older populations. In this review, a brief background on pain processing in neonatal life, pain exposure in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU), the consequences of untreated pain, and the difficulties in treating procedural pain pharmacologically will be presented. A more detailed review of non-pharmacological interventions for procedural pain in neonates will include sensory stimulation approaches, oral sweet solutions, and maternal interventions. Some possible mechanisms for the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions are offered. Finally, avenues of research into similar interventions as adjuvant therapies or drug-sparing effects in older populations are suggested. © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.