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East Quincy, United States

Raji C.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Lee C.,University of Cincinnati | Lopez O.L.,University of Pittsburgh | Tsay J.,University of Pittsburgh | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Neuroradiology

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging of the brain has significant potential in the early detection of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. The purpose of this work was to determine if perfusion MR imaging can be used to separate AD from normal cognition in individual subjects. We investigated the diagnostic utility of perfusion MR imaging for early detection of AD compared with structural imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were analyzed from 32 participants in the institutional review board - approved CHS-CS: 19 cognitively healthy individuals and 13 with clinically adjudicated AD. All subjects underwent structural T1-weighted SGPR and CASL MR imaging. Four readers with varying experience separately rated each CASL and SPGR scan finding as normal or abnormal on the basis of standardized qualitative diagnostic criteria for observed perfusion abnormalities on CASL or volume loss on SPGR and rated the confidence in their evaluation. RESULTS: Inter-rater reliability was superior in CASL (κ = 0.7 in experienced readers) compared with SPGR (κ = 0.17). CASL MR imaging had the highest sensitivity (85%) and accuracy (70%). Frontal lobe CASL findings increased sensitivity to 88% and accuracy to 79%. Fifty-seven percent of false-positive readings with CASL were in controls with cognitive decline or instability within 5 years. Three of the 4 readers revealed a statistically significant relationship between confidence and correct classification when using CASL. CONCLUSIONS: Readers were able to separate individuals with mild AD from those with normal cognition with high sensitivity by using CASL but not volumetric MR imaging. This initial experience suggests that CASL MR imaging may be a useful technique for detecting AD. Source

Welch R.D.,Wayne State University | Ayaz S.I.,Wayne State University | Lewis L.M.,Washington University in St. Louis | Unden J.,Clinical science in Malmo | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Neurotrauma

Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. © Robert D. Welch, et al. 2015; Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016. Source

Patel R.R.,Western Radiation Oncology Inc. | Beitsch P.D.,Dallas Surgical Group | Nichols T.D.,Northpoint Cancer Center | Lorenzetti J.D.,Breast Specialists | And 15 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials

OBJECTIVES:: This multicenter registry followed up patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and electronic brachytherapy (EBT). This report provides 1- and 2-year updates to the initial publication. METHODS:: Patients were of age 50 years or more with invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ, tumor size ≤3 cm, and negative surgical margins. After lumpectomy, patients received EBT in 10 fractions over 5 days (34 Gy total). RESULTS:: Of the 69 patients enrolled, 62 were evaluated at 1 year and 20 patients at 2 years after treatment. At 1 year, 28 (45.2%) patients reported adverse events that were possibly, probably, or definitely related to treatment. Most (90%) were grade 1: manageable and typical of radiation therapy. Four events were grade 2: induration/firmness (2), field contracture (1), and seroma (1). One event was grade 3: a draining fistula at the lumpectomy site due to residual effects of a breast infection at 1 month. No recurrences have been reported. Cosmetic ratings were excellent or good in 93.4% of patients at 1 year. Most patients (69%) were energetic most or all of the time. Most patients (69% to 98%) were not affected by individual symptoms of breast disease at 1 year. Generally patients who had an adverse event did not report the corresponding symptom on the quality-of-life questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS:: This registry followed up patients with early-stage breast cancer at 1 and 2 years after breast-conserving surgery and EBT. No recurrences have been reported, and adverse effects were acceptable. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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