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Fogh S.E.,University of California at San Francisco | Deshmukh S.,Data Management | Berk L.B.,University of South Florida | Dueck A.C.,Mayo Clinic in Arizona | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2017

Purpose Randomized trials have shown that honey is effective for the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. Because there is no efficacious preventative for radiation esophagitis in lung cancer patients, this trial compared liquid honey, honey lozenges, and standard supportive care for radiation esophagitis. Methods The patients were stratified by percentage of esophagus receiving specific radiation dose (V60 Gy esophagus <30% or ≥30%) and were then randomized between supportive care, 10 mL of liquid manuka honey 4 times a day, and 2 lozenges (10 mL of dehydrated manuka honey) 4 times a day during concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The primary endpoint was patient-reported pain on swallowing, with the use of an 11-point (0-10) scale at 4 weeks (Numerical Rating Pain Scale, NRPS). The study was designed to detect a 15% relative reduction of change in NRPS score. The secondary endpoints were trend of pain over time, opioid use, clinically graded and patient-reported adverse events, weight loss, dysphagia, nutritional status, and quality of life. Results 53 patients were randomized to supportive care, 54 were randomized to liquid honey, and 56 were randomized to lozenge honey. There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint of change in the NRPS at 4 weeks between arms. There were no differences in any of the secondary endpoints except for opioid use at 4 weeks during treatment between the supportive care and liquid honey arms, which was found to be significant (P=.03), with more patients on the supportive care arm taking opioids. Conclusion Honey as prescribed within this protocol was not superior to best supportive care in preventing radiation esophagitis. Further testing of other types of honey and research into the mechanisms of action are needed. © 2016

PubMed | Health Cancer Center Orlando Health and SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gynecologic oncology | Year: 2016

Adjuvant treatment options following surgical staging for women with stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma include chemotherapy (CT) with or without radiation therapy (RT). We utilized the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to investigate utilization of adjuvant CT and RT for this group of patients and assess their impact on overall survival (OS).The NCDB was queried for patients diagnosed with non-metastatic surgically staged uterine adenocarcinoma between 2004 and 2011 with at least one pathologically positive lymph node. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison was made between patients receiving no additional therapy, RT alone, CT alone, or a combination of CT and RT (CMT). Multivariable cox regression analysis (MVA) was performed to evaluate the effect of covariates on OS.A total of 6720 patients were included in this study. Of whom, 1409 received no adjuvant treatment, 1533 received CT only, 1265 received RT only, and 2522 received CMT. The 5-year OS for patients receiving no adjuvant therapy, RT alone, CT alone, and CMT were 54.9%, 63.9%, 64.4%, and 72.6%, respectively. On pairwise analysis, CMT was associated with improved survival compared to all other subgroups (p<0.001). On MVA, CMT (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.52-0.66, p<0.001) was the strongest predictor for improved OS compared to RT alone (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.69-0.89, p<0.001) or CT alone (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.85, p<0.001).Both adjuvant CT and adjuvant RT were associated with improved OS for women with stage IIIC endometrial adenocarcinoma, but CMT was associated with the largest improvement in OS.

PubMed | Health Cancer Center Orlando Health
Type: | Journal: Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus | Year: 2016

Given the paucity of esophageal small cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, there are few large studies evaluating this disease. In this study, the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was utilized to analyze the clinical features, treatment, and survival of patients with esophageal SCC in a large, population-based dataset. We selected patients diagnosed with esophageal SCC from 1998 to 2011. Patients were identified as having no treatment, chemotherapy alone, radiationsequential chemotherapy, concurrent chemoradiation, and esophagectomychemotherapy and/or radiation. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with OS. A total of 583 patients were identified. Most patients had stage IV disease (41.7%). Regarding treatment selection, chemoradiation was the most commonly utilized for patients with nonmetasatic disease, whereas chemotherapy alone was most common for metastatic patients. Esophagectomy (median survival 44.9 months with 3 year OS 50.5%) was associated with the best OS for patients with localized (node-negative) disease compared with chemotherapy alone (p<0.001) or chemoradiation (p=0.01). For locoregional (node-positive) disease, treatment with chemoradiation resulted in a median survival of 17.8 months and a 3 year OS 31.6%. On multivariate analysis, treatment with chemotherapy alone (p=0.003) was associated with worse OS while esophagectomy (p=0.04) was associated with improved OS compared to chemoradiation. Esophageal SCC is an aggressive malignancy with most patients presenting with metastatic disease. Either esophagectomy or chemoradiation as part of multimodality treatment appear to improve OS for selected patients with nonmetastatic disease.

PubMed | Health Cancer Center Orlando Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International urology and nephrology | Year: 2015

To analyze patterns of care in younger patients (<60 years old) with localized prostate cancer and to identify factors associated with selection of therapy using a large, population-based database.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried to identify men <60 years old diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 2010 and 2011. Patients were determined to have undergone no active treatment, local therapy, radiation therapy (RT), or radical prostatectomy (RP). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the use of definitive therapy.A total of 12,732 men were included in this analysis. For the entire cohort, 12.5 % received no definitive treatment, 61.6 % RP, 22.0 % RT, and 3.3 % RP with adjuvant RT. Among men with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer, 17.2, 7.1, and 15.9 %, respectively, received no definitive therapy. RP was the most common choice of definitive therapy, utilized in 74.6 % of patients. Adjuvant RT after RP was utilized in 16.2 % of cases with positive margin and/or pT3/pT4 disease. African-American race, single marital status, and Medicaid/no insurance were associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving definitive treatment.A significant proportion of younger men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, particularly with low- or high-risk disease, are not receiving definitive therapy. African-American men, uninsured men, and patients with Medicaid or no medical insurance are less likely to receive definitive treatment.

PubMed | Health Cancer Center Orlando Health and SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gynecologic oncology | Year: 2016

Two randomized trials have demonstrated a local control advantage in the absence of a survival advantage for the addition of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) to surgery in patients with stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma (EC). This study analyzed the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to evaluate the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) for patients with stage I EC.Patients with EC who underwent total hysterectomy/bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy between 2004 and 2011 were queried. Only those with AJCC stage pT1N0M0 were included. Patients surviving <4months excluded. Adjuvant RT included external beam RT (EBRT), brachytherapy, or external RT+brachytherapy. OS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis and propensity matched analysis were performed to assess the impact of covariates on OS.There were 61,697 patients included. Most women (83.9%) did not receive adjuvant RT. Adjuvant RT usage increased with increasing stage/grade. Usage of brachytherapy alone decreased with increasing stage/grade (78.2% for IA/G1 to 36.1% for IB/G3) corresponding to an increase in the use of EBRT (21.8% for IA/G1 to 53.9% for IB/G3). On multivariable analysis, adjuvant EBRT (HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.74-0.93, p=0.002) and brachytherapy (HR 0.82, 95%CI 0.74-0.93, p=0.002) were each associated with improved survival for women with stage IB. In the propensity matched cohort, RT was associated with improved survival (0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.92, p<0.001).The use of adjuvant RT for women with stage I EC is highly dependent on stage/grade and is associated with improved survival for stage IB.

PubMed | Health Cancer Center Orlando Health and University of California at Los Angeles
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to systematically monitor anatomic variations and their dosimetric consequences during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck (H&N) cancer by using a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based deformable image registration (DIR) framework.Eleven IMRT H&N patients undergoing IMRT with daily megavoltage computed tomography (CT) and weekly kilovoltage CT (kVCT) scans were included in this analysis. Pretreatment kVCTs were automatically registered with their corresponding planning CTs through a GPU-based DIR framework. The deformation of each contoured structure in the H&N region was computed to account for nonrigid change in the patient setup. The Jacobian determinant of the planning target volumes and the surrounding critical structures were used to quantify anatomical volume changes. The actual delivered dose was calculated accounting for the organ deformation. The dose distribution uncertainties due to registration errors were estimated using a landmark-based gamma evaluation.Dramatic interfractional anatomic changes were observed. During the treatment course of 6 to 7 weeks, the parotid gland volumes changed up to 34.7%, and the center-of-mass displacement of the 2 parotid glands varied in the range of 0.9 to 8.8 mm. For the primary treatment volume, the cumulative minimum and mean and equivalent uniform doses assessed by the weekly kVCTs were lower than the planned doses by up to 14.9% (P=.14), 2% (P=.39), and 7.3% (P=.05), respectively. The cumulative mean doses were significantly higher than the planned dose for the left parotid (P=.03) and right parotid glands (P=.006). The computation including DIR and dose accumulation was ultrafast (45 seconds) with registration accuracy at the subvoxel level.A systematic analysis of anatomic variations in the H&N region and their dosimetric consequences is critical in improving treatment efficacy. Nearly real-time assessment of anatomic and dosimetric variations is feasible using the GPU-based DIR framework. Clinical implementation of this technology may enable timely plan adaptation and improved outcome.

Rana S.,Proton Therapy | Cheng C.,Vantage Oncology | Zheng Y.,Proton Therapy | Hsi W.,McLaren | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics | Year: 2014

The main purposes of this study were to 1) investigate the dosimetric quality of uniform scanning proton therapy planning (USPT) for prostate cancer patients with a metal hip prosthesis, and 2) compare the dosimetric results of USPT with that of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Proton plans for prostate cancer (four cases) were generated in XiO treatment planning system (TPS). The beam arrangement in each proton plan consisted of three fields (two oblique fields and one lateral or slightly angled field), and the proton beams passing through a metal hip prosthesis was avoided. Dose calculations in proton plans were performed using the pencil beam algorithm. From each proton plan, planning target volume (PTV) coverage value (i.e., relative volume of the PTV receiving the prescription dose of 79.2 CGE) was recorded. The VMAT prostate planning was done using two arcs in the Eclipse TPS utilizing 6 MV X-rays, and beam entrance through metallic hip prosthesis was avoided. Dose computation in the VMAT plans was done using anisotropic analytical algorithm, and calculated VMAT plans were then normalized such that the PTV coverage in the VMAT plan was the same as in the proton plan of the corresponding case. The dose-volume histograms of calculated treatment plans were used to evaluate the dosimetric quality of USPT and VMAT. In comparison to the proton plans, on average, the maximum and mean doses to the PTV were higher in the VMAT plans by 1.4% and 0.5%, respectively, whereas the minimum PTV dose was lower in the VMAT plans by 3.4%. The proton plans had lower (or better) average homogeneity index (HI) of 0.03 compared to the one for VMAT (HI = 0.04). The relative rectal volume exposed to radiation was lower in the proton plan, with an average absolute difference ranging from 0.1% to 32.6%. In contrast, using proton planning, the relative bladder volume exposed to radiation was higher at high-dose region with an average absolute difference ranging from 0.4% to 0.8%, and lower at low- and medium-dose regions with an average absolute difference ranging from 2.7% to 10.1%. The average mean dose to the rectum and bladder was lower in the proton plans by 45.1% and 22.0%, respectively, whereas the mean dose to femoral head was lower in VMAT plans by an average difference of 79.6%. In comparison to the VMAT, the proton planning produced lower equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the rectum (43.7 CGE vs. 51.4 Gy) and higher EUD for the femoral head (16.7 CGE vs. 9.5 Gy), whereas both the VMAT and proton planning produced comparable EUDs for the prostate tumor (76.2 CGE vs. 76.8 Gy) and bladder (50.3 CGE vs. 51.1 Gy). The results presented in this study show that the combination of lateral and oblique fields in USPT planning could potentially provide dosimetric advantage over the VMAT for prostate cancer involving a metallic hip prosthesis.

His W.C.,Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center | Schreuder A.N.,Proton Therapy | Zeidan O.,Health Cancer Center Orlando Health
Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics | Year: 2015

We present a quantitative methodology to measure head interfraction movements within intracranial masks of commercial immobilization devices used for proton radiotherapy. A three-points tracking (3PtTrack) method was developed to measure the mask location for each treatment field over an average of 10 fractions for seven patients. Five patients were treated in supine with the Qfix Base-of-Skull (BoS) headframe, and two patients were treated in prone with the CIVCO Uni-frame baseplate. Patients were first localized by an in-room, image-guidance (IG) system, and then the mask location was measured using the 3PtTrack method. Measured mask displacements from initial location at the first fraction are considered equivalent to the head interfraction movement within the mask. The trends of head movements and couch displacements and rotation were analyzed in three major directions. The accuracy of 3PtTrack method was shown to be within 1.0mm based on daily measurements of a QA device after localization by the IG system for a period of three months. For seven patients, mean values of standard deviation (SD) in anterior-posterior, lateral, and superior-inferior directions were 1.1mm, 1.4 mm, and 1.6 mm for head movements, and were 1.4 mm, 1.8 mm, and 3.4mm for couch displacements. The mean SD values of couch rotations were 1.1o, 0.9o, and 1.1o for yaw, pitch, and roll, respectively. The overall patterns of head movements and couch displacements were similar for patients treated in either supine or prone, with larger deviations in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. A suboptimal mask fixation to the frame of the mask to the H&N frame is likely the cause for the observed larger head movements and couch displacements in the SI direction compared to other directions. The optical-tracking methodology provided a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of head motion.

Hsi W.C.,Proton Therapy | Hsi W.C.,Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center | Law A.,ProCure Training and Development Center | Schreuder A.N.,ProCure Training and Development Center | And 3 more authors.
Medical Physics | Year: 2014

Purpose: An optical tracking and positioning system (OTPS) was developed to validate the software-driven isocentric (SDI) approach to control the six-degrees-of-freedom movement of a robotic couch. Methods: The SDI approach to movements rotating around a predefined isocenter, referred to as a GeoIso, instead of a mechanical pivot point was developed by the robot automation industry. With robotic couch-sag corrections for weight load in a traditional SDI approach, movements could be accurately executed for a GeoIso located within a 500 mm cubic volume on the couch for treatments. The accuracy of SDI movement was investigated using the OTPS. The GeoIso was assumed to align with the proton beam isocenter (RadIso) for gantry at the reference angle. However, the misalignment between GeoIso and RadIso was quantitatively investigated by measuring the displacements at various couch angles for a target placed at the RadIso at an initial couch angle. When circular target displacements occur on a plane, a relative isocenter shift (RIS) correction could be applied in the SDI movement to minimize target displacements. Target displacements at a fixed gantry angle without and with RIS correction were measured for 12 robotic couches. Target displacements for various gantry angles were performed on three couches in gantry rooms to study the gantry-induced RadIso shift. The RIS correction can also be applied for the RadIso shift. A new SDI approach incorporating the RIS correction with the couch sag is described in this study. In parallel, the accuracy of SDI translation movements for various weight loads of patients on the couch was investigated during positioning of patients for proton prostate treatments. Results: For a fixed gantry angle, measured target displacements without RIS correction for couch rotations in the horizontal plane varied from 4 to 20 mm. However, measured displacements perpendicular to couch rotation plane were about 2 mm for all couches. Extracted misalignments of GeoIso and RadIso in the horizontal plane were about 10 mm for one couch and within 3 mm for the rest of couches. After applying the RIS correction, the residual target displacements for couch rotations were within 0.5 mm to RadIso for all couches. For various gantry angles, measured target location for each angle was within 0.5 mm to its excepted location by the preset RadIso shift. Measured target displacements for ±30° of couch rotations were within 0.5 mm for gantry angles at 0° and 180°. Overall, nearly 85% of couch movements were within 0.5 mm in the horizontal plane and 0.7 mm vector distance from required displacements. Conclusions: The authors present an optical tracking methodology to quantify for software-driven isocentric movements of robotic couches. By applying proper RIS correction for misaligned GeoIso and RadIso for each couch, and the RadIso shifts for a moving gantry, residual target displacements for isocentric couch movements around the actual RadIso can be reduced to submillimeter tolerance. © 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

PubMed | McLaren and Health Cancer Center Orlando Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical physics | Year: 2016

We present a quantitative methodology utilizing an optical tracking system for monitoring head inter-fraction movements within brain masks to assess the effectiveness of two intracranial immobilization techniques.A 3-point-tracking method was developed to measure the mask location for a treatment field at each fraction. Measured displacement of mask location to its location at first fraction is equivalent to the head movement within the mask. Head movements for each of treatment fields were measured over about 10 fractions at each patient for seven patients; five treated in supine and two treated in prone. The Q-fix Base-of-Skull head frame was used in supine while the CIVCO uni-frame baseplate was used in prone. Displacements of recoded couch position of each field post imaging at each fraction were extracted for those seven patients. Standard deviation (S.D.) of head movements and couch displacements was scored for statistical analysis.The accuracy of 3PtTrack method was within 1.0 mm by phantom measurements. Patterns of head movement and couch displacement were similar for patients treated in either supine or prone. In superior-inferior direction, mean value of scored standard deviations over seven patients were 1.6 mm and 3.4 mm for the head movement and the couch displacement, respectively. The result indicated that the head movement combined with a loose fixation between the mask-to-head frame results large couch displacements for each patient, and also large variation between patients. However, the head movement is the main cause for the couch displacement with similar magnitude of around 1.0 mm in anterior-posterior and lateral directions.Optical-tracking methodology independently quantifying head movements could improve immobilization devices by correctly acting on causes for head motions within mask. A confidence in the quality of intracranial immobilization techniques could be more efficient by eliminating the need for frequent imaging.

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