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PubMed | Nutrition and Health and, Institute for Child and Family Health, National Pediatric Hospital, National Maternal and Child Health Center and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2015

Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations are commonly used to assess iron deficiency (ID); however, they are influenced by multiple factors.We assessed associations between numerous variables and both ferritin and sTfR concentrations in Cambodian women and compared ID prevalence through the use of study-generated correction factors (CFs) for ferritin with those from a published meta-analysis.Venous blood from 450 women (aged 18-45 y) was assessed for hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, sTfR, retinol binding protein, folate, vitamin B-12, C-reactive protein, -1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), and genetic Hb disorders. Linear regression was used to calculate geometric mean ratios (95% CIs) for ferritin and sTfR concentrations.The variant Hb EE genotype was associated with 50% (14%, 96%) and 51% (37%, 66%) higher geometric mean ferritin and sTfR concentrations, respectively, than was the normal Hb AA genotype; a 1-g/L increase in AGP was associated with 99% (50%, 162%) and 48% (33%, 64%) higher concentrations in the same variables, respectively. ID prevalence in nonpregnant women (n = 420) was 2% (n = 9) with the use of ferritin <15 g/L and 18% (n = 79) with the use of sTfR >8.3 mg/L as criteria. ID prevalence with the use of sTfR was higher in women with the Hb EE genotype (n = 17; 55%) than in those with the Hb AA genotype (n = 20; 10%); and in women with the Hb AA genotype and chronic inflammation (n = 10; 18%) than in that group of women without chronic inflammation (n = 10; 7%) (P < 0.05). No differences in ID prevalence were found with the use of ferritin between women with Hb EE and AA genotypes (P = 1.0) or by chronic inflammation status (P = 0.32). There were no differences in mean ferritin concentrations among all 450 women when study-generated CFs were compared with those from the meta-analysis (P = 0.87).Compared with sTfR, ferritin concentrations appear to reflect more accurately true ID in rural Cambodian women. The CFs from a published meta-analysis were appropriate for use in this population with a high prevalence of Hb disorders and inflammation.


PubMed | Nutrition and Health and, University of British Columbia, Helen Keller International and Food For Health Ireland
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2015

Thiamin deficiency in infancy is the underlying cause of beriberi, which can be fatal without rapid treatment. Reports of thiamin deficiency are common in Cambodia; however, population representative data are unavailable. Because B-complex vitamin deficiencies commonly occur in combination, riboflavin was also investigated.We determined the biomarker status of thiamin and riboflavin in women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia.We measured thiamin (erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate; TDP) and riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient; EGRac) status in a representative sample of Cambodian women (aged 20-45 y) in urban Phnom Penh (n = 146) and rural Prey Veng (n = 156), Cambodia, and, for comparison purposes, in a convenience sample of women in urban Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (n = 49).Thiamin insufficiency (TDP 90 nmol/L) was common among both urban (39%) and rural (59%) Cambodian women (P < 0.001), whereas <20% of Vancouver women were thiamin insufficient (P < 0.001). The prevalence of suboptimal and deficient riboflavin status (EGRac 1.3) was 89%, 92%, and 70% among women in Phnom Penh, Prey Veng, and Vancouver, respectively (P < 0.001).Suboptimal status of both thiamin and riboflavin were common in Cambodian women, with substantially higher rates among women living in rural Prey Veng than in urban Phnom Penh. Strategies may be needed to improve the thiamin and riboflavin status of women in Cambodia. The unexpected finding of high riboflavin inadequacy status in Vancouver women warrants further investigation.

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