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Akter S.,University of Tsukuba | Akter S.,Health and Disease Research Center for Rural Peoples | Akter S.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Jesmin S.,University of Tsukuba | And 14 more authors.
Hypertension Research | Year: 2015

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potential marker of the endothelial dysfunction, which has been shown to be elevated in hypertensive subjects. No previous study has investigated the circulatory level of ET-1 and hypertension in a South Asian country. The present study assessed the circulating levels of ET-1 in subjects with or without hypertension and further examined the association of ET-1 with clinical and metabolic parameters. A total of 2543 rural Bangladeshi women with a mean age of 44.5 years were studied using a cross-sectional survey. Multiple regressions were used to examine the association between the circulatory ET-1 levels and hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.3%. The ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive (mean 3.08 pg ml-1, s.e. (0.19)) than in the non-hypertensive subjects (mean 2.01 pg ml-1, s.e. (0.03)) (P=0.001). After adjusting for age, the ET-1 level had significant positive associations with the diastolic blood pressure (P=0.002), systolic blood pressure (P=0.001), mean arterial pressure (P=0.002) and fasting blood glucose (P=0.002). In a tertile analysis, we found that hypertension in the subjects was significantly increased as the levels of ET-1 increased (P for the trend=0.001). In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for age and all other potential variables, we found that the mean arterial pressure and the fasting plasma levels have significant associations with the ET-1 level. The present study demonstrates that there is a higher concentration of ET-1 among the hypertensive subjects in an apparently healthy population of Bangladeshi rural women. The relationship between ET-1 and hypertension requires further investigation to define the clinical utility and predictive value of serum ET-1 levels for hypertension for a South Asian population. © 2015 The Japanese Society of Hypertension All rights reserved.


Jesmin S.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Jesmin S.,Health and Disease Research Center for Rural Peoples | Islam M.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Islam M.,Health and Disease Research Center for Rural Peoples | And 13 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS), defined as a constellation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, is one of the fastest growing public health burdens in the Asia-Pacific region. This trend is despite the fact that people in this region are no more overweight than Europeans and Americans. Unfortunately, in South Asia, MS screening has only been performed in a few countries other than Bangladesh. Therefore the present study is designed to conduct a comprehensive screening of MS in Bangladeshi rural women, which includes estimation of prevalence and assessment of risk factor. Methods. A total of 1535 rural Bangladesh women aged 15 years were studied using a population based cross-sectional survey. The prevalence of MS was estimated using NCEP ATP III, modified NCEP ATP III and IDF criteria. Results: The prevalence rates of MS were 25.60% (NCEP ATP III), 36.68% (modified NCEP ATP III), and 19.80% (IDF), as revealed by the present study. Furthermore, based on the NCEP ATP III criteria, 11.60% of the subjects were found to have excess waist circumference; 29.12% had elevated blood pressure, 30.42% had elevated fasting plasma glucose level, 85.47% had low HDL values and 26.91% had increased triglyceride values. Low plasma HDL level was found to be the most common abnormality in the target population and elevated waist circumference was the least frequent component. Conclusions: The present study reveals a high prevalence of MS and its associated risk factors in rural Bangladeshi women. These findings are important in that they provide insights that will be helpful in formulating effective public health policy, notably the development of future health prevention strategies in Bangladesh. © 2012 Jesmin et al; BioMed Central Ltd.


Jesmin S.,University of Tsukuba | Jesmin S.,Health and Disease Research Center for Rural Peoples | Jesmin S.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences | Shimojo N.,University of Tsukuba | And 15 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2014

Aims Septic shock, the severe form of sepsis, is associated with development of progressive damage in multiple organs. Kidney can be injured and its functions altered by activation of coagulation, vasoactive-peptide and inflammatory processes in sepsis. Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, is implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and its complications. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are shown to play an important role in the interplay between inflammation and coagulation. We examined the time-dependent alterations of ET-1 and inflammatory cytokine, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in kidney tissue in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic rat model and the effects of PAR2 blocking peptide on the LPS-induced elevations of renal ET-1 and TNF-α levels. Main methods Male Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age were administered with either saline solution or LPS at different time points (1, 3, 6 and 10 h). Additionally, we treated LPS-administered rats with PAR2 blocking peptide for 3 h to assess whether blockade of PAR2 has a regulatory role on the ET-1 level in septic kidney. Key findings An increase in ET-1 peptide level was observed in kidney tissue after LPS administration time-dependently. Levels of renal TNF-α peaked (around 12-fold) at 1 h of sepsis. Interestingly, PAR2 blocking peptide normalized the LPS-induced elevations of renal ET-1 and TNF-α levels. Significance The present study reveals a distinct chronological expression of ET-1 and TNF-α in LPS-administered renal tissues and that blockade of PAR2 may play a crucial role in treating renal injury, via normalization of inflammation, coagulation and vaso-active peptide. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Jesmin S.,National Health Research Institute | Jesmin S.,Health and Disease Research Center for Rural Peoples | Yamaguchi N.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences | Zaedi S.,Health and Disease Research Center for Rural Peoples | And 7 more authors.
Biomedical Research | Year: 2011

Endothelin (ET)-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, and some studies suggest that circulating ET-1 is elevated in sepsis. The present study investigated whether ET plays a role in sepsis-mediated acute lung injury and whether its expression could be down regulated by blockade of TNF-α in septic lung. Male Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age were administered with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at different time points (1, 3, 6 and 10 h) and various tests were then performed. The features of acute lung injury were observed at 1 h after LPS administration, which gradually became severe with time. Systolic and diastolic pressures were reduced just about one hour after LPS administration, whereas pulmonary TNF-α levels were significantly increased at various time points after LPS administration. LPS induced a time-dependent expression of ET-1 and ETA receptor in the lungs compared to control, peaking and increasing by 3 fold at 6 h after induction of endotoxemia, whereas levels of ETB receptor, which has vasodilating effects, were remarkably down regulated time-dependently. We conclude that time-dependent increase of ET-1 and ETA receptor with the down regulation of ETB receptor may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in endotoxemia. Finally, treatment of LPS-administered rats with TNF-α blocking peptide for three hours significantly suppressed levels of pulmonary ET-1. These data taken together, led us to conclude that differential alteration in ET expression and its receptors may be mediated by TNF-α and may, in part, account for the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in endotoxemia.


Jesmin S.,Hokkaido University | Jesmin S.,National Health Research Institute | Jesmin S.,Health and Disease Research Center for Rural Peoples | Wada T.,Hokkaido University | And 3 more authors.
Inflammation | Year: 2013

We prospectively studied (1) the relationships between angiogenic factors, their soluble receptors and organ dysfunction and (2) the effects of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-induced platelet consumption, thrombin generation, and tissue hypoxia on the expression of the factors and receptors. Fifty patients with sepsis were classified into two subgroups: 37 patients with DIC and 13 patients without DIC. DIC patients showed higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, the prevalence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and more increased soluble fibrin and lactate levels. We observed lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble VEGF receptor 2 (sVEGFR2), angiopoietin 1 (Ang1) and Ang1/Ang2, and higher sVEGFR1 and Ang2 levels in DIC patients, but not significant differences in soluble Tie2 expression during the study period. The levels of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and Ang2 in DIC patients correlated with the SOFA scores. Clear differences were observed in the levels of Ang2 in the DIC patients between survivors and nonsurvivors and between those with and without MODS. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting death and MODS by Ang2 were 0.710 and 0.784, respectively. The VEGF levels showed a marked correlation with the platelet counts. Soluble fibrin and lactate levels independently predicted increases in the levels of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and Ang2 in DIC patients. In conclusion, VEGF, sVEGFR1, Ang2, and Ang1/Ang2, especially Ang2, may have roles in the development of MODS in sepsis associated with DIC, and VEGF, sVEGFR1, and Ang2 serum levels correlated with the extent of DIC-induced platelet consumption, thrombin generation, and blood lactate levels. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Jesmin S.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Jesmin S.,Hokkaido University | Jesmin S.,Health and Disease Research Center for Rural Peoples | Jesmin S.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences | And 12 more authors.
Inflammation | Year: 2012

Molecularmechanisms of sepsis-associated acute lung injury (ALI) are poorly defined. Since vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent vascular permeability and mitogenic factor, it might contribute to the development of ALI in sepsis. Thus, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) endotoxemic rat model, we studied the timeline (1, 3, 6, and 10 h) of pulmonary VEGF expression and its signaling machinery. Levels of pulmonary VEGF and its angiogenic-mediating receptor, Flk-1, were downregulated by LPS in a time-dependent manner; levels of plasma VEGF and its permeability-mediating receptor, Flt-1, in contrast, was upregulated with time. In addition, blockade of Flt-1 could improve the downregulated pulmonary VEGF level and attenuate the elevated plasma and pulmonary levels of TNF-α, followed by improvement of arterial oxygenation and wet-to-dry weight ratio of the lung. Expression of signaling, pro- and or apoptotic factors after LPS administration were as follows: phosphorylated Akt, a downstream molecule was downregulated time dependently; endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels were significantly reduced; pro-apoptotic markers caspase 3 and Bax were upregulated whereas levels of Bcl-2 were downregulated. The present findings show that VEGF may play a role through the expression of Flt-1 in LPS-induced ALI. Moreover, downregulation of VEGF signaling cascade may account for LPS-induced apoptosis and impaired physiological angiogenesis in lung tissues, which in turn may contribute to the development of ALI induced by LPS. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Jesmin S.,Health and Disease Research Center for Rural Peoples | Jesmin S.,University of Tsukuba | Jesmin S.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Akter S.,Health and Disease Research Center for Rural Peoples | And 16 more authors.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2013

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with impaired angiogenesis, a process that is chiefly regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon binding to its specific receptors, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2. The purpose of the present study was to assess trends or patterns in plasma levels of VEGF and its soluble receptors in subjects with (MetS) or without (non-MetS) MetS; and further examine their association with clinical or metabolic parameters using a subpopulation of South Asian country. A total of 1,802 rural Bangladeshi women aged ≥15 years were studied using a population-based crosssectional survey. Plasma levels of VEGF were found to be significantly increased (MetS vs. non-MetS: 483.9 vs. 386.9, p<0.001), whereas, the soluble forms of VEGF receptors, sVEGF-R1 and sVEGF-R2, were significantly decreased in subjects with Mets (sVEGF-R1, MetS vs. non- MetS: 512.5 vs. 631.3, p<0.001; sVEGF-R2, MetS vs. non-MetS: 9,302.8 vs. 9,787.4, p=0.004). After adjustment for age and all potential variables, multiple regression analysis revealed that plasma levels of VEGF had significant positive association with blood glucose (p = 0.019) and body mass index (p = 0.007). We also found that mean plasma levels of VEGF increased in direct proportion to levels of MetS components. The present study is the first ever to demonstrate a positive association between trends in levels of plasma VEGF and MetS using a large sample size from South Asia. The association between plasma VEGF and MetS needs further investigations in order to clearly decipher the clinical predictive value and accuracy of plasma VEGF in MetS. © Schattauer 2013.

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