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Connor S.J.,Columbia University | Omumbo J.,Columbia University | Green C.,Columbia University | Dasilva J.,WHO Africa Regional Office | And 5 more authors.
Procedia Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

This paper describes the needs for climate risk management and information services for the health sector to serve research, educational and operational needs of ministries of health and their partners, those agencies that support broader public health service provision as well as respond to epidemics and emergencies. While climate information is considered highly relevant to helping guide improvements in public health provision, to date this information is largely underutilized. We explore some of the gaps in satisfying these needs, and we make recommendations to help fill the identified gaps. © 2010 Published by Elsevier. Source

Barrie L.,World Meteorological Organization | Dickerson P.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Foley G.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Lafaye M.,French National Center for Space Studies | And 5 more authors.
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2010

Earth observations can provide a wealth of information for making informed societal decisions. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) integrates a variety of organizations interested in environmental data and/or decision-making to create a sound technical platform for information-sharing and collaboration. The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) facilitates the use of Earth observations in decisions by making decision-support tools and information publically available. The main principle of GEOSS is to benefit society. The Health Societal Benefit Area (SBA) spans the science-to-decision-making continuum through three tasks: Information Systems for Health, Monitoring and Prediction Systems for Health, and End-to-End Projects for Health. Projects within each overarching task focus on building connections between basic research, tools, and tangible decisions. Current foci within the Health SBA include: aerosol impacts on health, air quality forecasting, global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and mercury, meningitis in Africa, developing malaria early warning systems, and decision support tools for ecosystems, biodiversity and health. Source

Picardeau M.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Bertherat E.,World Health Organization | Jancloes M.,Health and Climate Foundation | Skouloudis A.N.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | And 2 more authors.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2014

Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution but is more commonly found in impoverished populations in developing countries and tropical regions with frequent flooding. The rapid detection of leptospirosis is a critical step to effectively manage the disease and to control outbreaks in both human and animal populations. Therefore, there is a need for accurate and rapid diagnostic tests and appropriate surveillance and alert systems to identify outbreaks. This review describes current in-house methods and commercialized tests for the rapid diagnosis of acute leptospirosis. It focuses on diagnostic tests that can be performed with minimal training and limited equipment in less-developed and newly industrialized countries, particularly in resource-limited settings and with results in minutes to less than 4 hours. We also describe recent technological advances in the field of diagnostic tests that could allow for the development of innovative rapid tests in the near future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Brunet G.,Environment Canada | Shapiro M.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Shapiro M.,University of Bergen | Hoskins B.,Imperial College London | And 13 more authors.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2010

Progress in long-range prediction depends on coordination of research in multimodel ensembles, in tropical convection and its interaction with the global circulation, in data assimilation, and in socio-economic applications. The four main areas of the World Weather Research Program-World Climate Research Program (WWRP-WCRP) collaboration includes seamless weather/climate prediction, including ensemble prediction systems (EPSs), multiscale organization of tropical convection and its two-way interaction with the global circulation, data assimilation for coupled models, and utilization of sub-seasonal and seasonal predictions for social and economic benefits. Data assimilation allows the diagnosis of errors while they are still small, before they interact significantly with other fields. The success of this endeavor will depend on the collaboration, commitment, excellence, and strength of the weather, climate, Earth system, and social science research communities. Source

Shapiro M.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Shapiro M.,University of Bergen | Shukla J.,George Mason University | Shukla J.,Institute of Global Environment and Society | And 41 more authors.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2010

Some scientists have proposed the Earth-System Prediction Initiative (EPI) at the 2007 GEO Summit in Cape Town, South Africa. EPI will draw upon coordination between international programs for Earth system observations, prediction, and warning, such as the WCRP, WWRP, GCOS, and hence contribute to GEO and the GEOSS. It will link with international organizations, such as the International Council for Science (ICSU), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), UNEP, WMO, and World Health Organization (WHO). The proposed initiative will provide high-resolution climate models that capture the properties of regional high-impact weather events, such as tropical cyclones, heat wave, and sand and dust storms associated within multi-decadal climate projections of climate variability and change. Unprecedented international collaboration and goodwill are necessary for the success of EPI. Source

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