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Proboste T.,Major University | Kalema-Zikusoka G.,Conservation Through Public Health | Altet L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Solano-Gallego L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 11 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: In rural parts of Africa, dogs live in close association with humans and livestock, roam freely, and usually do not receive prophylactic measures. Thus, they are a source of infectious disease for humans and for wildlife such as protected carnivores. In 2011, an epidemiological study was carried out around three conservation areas in Uganda to detect the presence and determine the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in rural dogs and associated ticks to evaluate the risk that these pathogens pose to humans and wildlife. Methods: Serum samples (n = 105), blood smears (n = 43) and blood preserved on FTA cards (n = 38) and ticks (58 monospecific pools of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus praetextatus including 312 ticks from 52 dogs) were collected from dogs. Dog sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence to detect the presence of antibodies against Rickettsia conorii and Ehrlichia canis. Antibodies against R. conorii were also examined by indirect enzyme immunoassay. Real time PCR for the detection of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Bartonella spp. and Babesia spp. was performed in DNA extracted from FTA cards and ticks. Results: 99 % of the dogs were seropositive to Rickettsia spp. and 29.5 % to Ehrlichia spp. Molecular analyses revealed that 7.8 % of the blood samples were infected with Babesia rossi, and all were negative for Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Ticks were infected with Rickettsia sp. (18.9 %), including R. conorii and R. massiliae; Ehrlichia sp. (18.9 %), including E. chaffeensis and Anaplasma platys; and B. rossi (1.7 %). Bartonella spp. was not detected in any of the blood or tick samples. Conclusions: This study confirms the presence of previously undetected vector-borne pathogens of humans and animals in East Africa. We recommend that dog owners in rural Uganda be advised to protect their animals against ectoparasites to prevent the transmission of pathogens to humans and wildlife. © 2015 Proboste et al. Source


Proboste T.,Major University | Kalema-Zikusoka G.,Conservation Through Public Health Plot | Altet L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Solano-Gallego L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 12 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: In rural parts of Africa, dogs live in close association with humans and livestock, roam freely, and usually do not receive prophylactic measures. Thus, they are a source of infectious disease for humans and for wildlife such as protected carnivores. In 2011, an epidemiological study was carried out around three conservation areas in Uganda to detect the presence and determine the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in rural dogs and associated ticks to evaluate the risk that these pathogens pose to humans and wildlife. Methods: Serum samples (n∈=∈105), blood smears (n∈=∈43) and blood preserved on FTA cards (n∈=∈38) and ticks (58 monospecific pools of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus praetextatus including 312 ticks from 52 dogs) were collected from dogs. Dog sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence to detect the presence of antibodies against Rickettsia conorii and Ehrlichia canis. Antibodies against R. conorii were also examined by indirect enzyme immunoassay. Real time PCR for the detection of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Bartonella spp. and Babesia spp. was performed in DNA extracted from FTA cards and ticks. Results: 99 % of the dogs were seropositive to Rickettsia spp. and 29.5 % to Ehrlichia spp. Molecular analyses revealed that 7.8 % of the blood samples were infected with Babesia rossi, and all were negative for Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Ticks were infected with Rickettsia sp. (18.9 %), including R. conorii and R. massiliae; Ehrlichia sp. (18.9 %), including E. chaffeensis and Anaplasma platys; and B. rossi (1.7 %). Bartonella spp. was not detected in any of the blood or tick samples. Conclusions: This study confirms the presence of previously undetected vector-borne pathogens of humans and animals in East Africa. We recommend that dog owners in rural Uganda be advised to protect their animals against ectoparasites to prevent the transmission of pathogens to humans and wildlife. © 2015 Proboste et al. Source


Jouglin M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Jouglin M.,National School of Engineering in Agricultural and Food Industries | Fernandez-De-Mera I.G.,Health and Biotechnology SaBio Group | Fernandez-De-Mera I.G.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 12 more authors.
Veterinary Research | Year: 2014

The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candidate vector. The molecular characteristics of 21 isolates were determined by complete (8 isolates) or partial (13 isolates) 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequences were highly similar (over 99.4% identity) and 6 sequence types were identified at the level of one herd only, demonstrating a rather high genetic diversity. They formed a monophyletic clade, and members of the three main sequence types shared a similar morphology and the same erythrocyte susceptibility pattern. This clade also included Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolated from sheep in China and Babesia sp. identified in giraffe in South Africa, with identities higher than 98.3% and statistically relevant phylogenetic support. None of the biological properties analyzed for both Babesia from red deer and Babesia sp. Xinjiang allowed their differentiation (ability to develop in vitro in erythrocytes from cattle and sheep, as well as in erythrocytes from different cervids, unsuccessful infection of calves). We propose the Babesia isolated from red deer as a new species named B. pecorum. Whether Babesia sp. Xinjiang and the Babesia characterized in South Africa belong to the same species is debated. © 2014 Jouglin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Ruiz-Fons F.,Health and Biotechnology SaBio Group | Gonzalez-Barrio D.,Health and Biotechnology SaBio Group | Aguilar-Rios F.,Health and Biotechnology SaBio Group | Soler A.J.,Health and Biotechnology SaBio Group | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

Conservation of genetic resources from endangered breeds may be conducted through germinal banks. Preservation of healthy samples is paramount to avoid preserving pathogens shed with germinal products. The black variety of Manchega sheep (BMS), and endangered breed endemic to south-central Spain, is the subject of a conservation program; a germinal bank has been recently established. However, several pathogens circulating in BMS flocks may be shed with semen and threaten BMS preservation. Therefore, we investigated the sanitary status of BMS flocks and semen samples from 4 of the 17 flocks in which this variety is bred worldwide. A serological screening for Maedi-Visna virus, bluetongue virus, Pestivirus spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Anaplasma spp., Mycoplasma agalactiae, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum was performed to assess for pathogens potentially shed by semen. Semen samples from 11 of the 35 BMS rams and 4 samples from coexisting rams of the white variety (WMS) were analyzed by PCR to detect Maedi-Visna virus, C. burnetii, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and T. gondii. Maedi-Visna virus RNA was detected in 3 semen samples (2 BMS and 1 WMS) while C. burnetii DNA was detected in 3 samples from WMS rams. Pathogens that can be transmitted by semen were present in BMS flocks, and Maedi-Visna virus and C. burnetii showed the highest potential for transmission by artificial insemination. Our results point to the need of testing semen samples kept for conservation purposes of BMS before using them for artificial insemination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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