Colford J.M.,University of California at Berkeley |
Schiff K.C.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project |
Griffith J.F.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project |
Yau V.,University of California at Berkeley |
And 13 more authors.
Background: Traditional fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurement is too slow (>18 h) for timely swimmer warnings. Objectives: Assess relationship of rapid indicator methods (qPCR) to illness at a marine beach impacted by urban runoff. Methods: We measured baseline and two-week health in 9525 individuals visiting Doheny Beach 2007-08. Illness rates were compared (swimmers vs. non-swimmers). FIB measured by traditional (Enterococcus spp. by EPA Method 1600 or Enterolert™, fecal coliforms, total coliforms) and three rapid qPCR assays for Enterococcus spp. (Taqman, Scorpion-1, Scorpion-2) were compared to health. Primary bacterial source was a creek flowing untreated into ocean; the creek did not reach the ocean when a sand berm formed. This provided a natural experiment for examining FIB-health relationships under varying conditions. Results: We observed significant increases in diarrhea (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.29-2.80 for swallowing water) and other outcomes in swimmers compared to non-swimmers. Exposure (body immersion, head immersion, swallowed water) was associated with increasing risk of gastrointestinal illness (GI). Daily GI incidence patterns were different: swimmers (2-day peak) and non-swimmers (no peak). With berm-open, we observed associations between GI and traditional and rapid methods for Enterococcus; fewer associations occurred when berm status was not considered. Conclusions: We found increased risk of GI at this urban runoff beach. When FIB source flowed freely (berm-open), several traditional and rapid indicators were related to illness. When FIB source was weak (berm-closed) fewer illness associations were seen. These different relationships under different conditions at a single beach demonstrate the difficulties using these indicators to predict health risk. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Heal The Bay | Date: 2002-06-11
Apparel, namely hats, T-shirts and sweatshirts. Research investigation services in the field of pollution levels for coastal waters, and issuing reports in connection therewith; monitoring compliance with standards and requirements for pollution levels for coastal waters, issuing reports in connection therewith.
Heal The Bay | Date: 2003-02-11
Apparel, namely hats, T-shirts and sweatshirts. Research services in the field of pollution levels for coastal waters, and issuing reports in connection therewith; monitoring compliance with standards and requirements for pollution levels for coastal waters, and issuing reports in connection therewith.
Stevenson C.,Heal the Bay |
Sikich S.A.,Heal the Bay |
Gold M.,Heal the Bay
Ecosystem-based management is more successful when a great diversity of stakeholders is engaged early in a decision-making process. Implementation of the California Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) has been stakeholder-based, coordinating the participation of a wide range of people including divers, fishermen, conservationists, local officials, business owners and coastal residents. Although commercial and recreational fishermen have actively participated throughout the MLPA implementation process, and research related to California's sport and commercial fisheries has been integrated into the process, pier and shore anglers have been relatively unengaged as stakeholders. This study was completed to generate information about pier angler understanding and sentiment towards marine protected areas (MPAs), as well as to educate anglers on the MLPA implementation process in southern California and inform them on involvement opportunities. Of the 3030 pier anglers surveyed over 12 months, 78% only fish for subsistence from piers and from shore (never from boats); 84.6% are of non-White/Euro-American ethnicity and speak English as a second language; and 82% indicated that they were supportive of establishing a strong network of MPAs in southern California, specifically fully-protective no-take marine reserves. This study is an example of an alternative and customized method of outreach designed to reach a unique and previously unengaged stakeholder group, which stands to be affected by the implementation of the MLPA in California. Engaging such non-traditional stakeholders in public policy may be critical for decision makers to gauge all views from those standing to be affected by a policy-not just the views of those that regularly attend policy meetings-and for the ultimate success of policy implementation and community support. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source