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Okubo K.,Headquarters
Japanese Journal of Environmental Infections | Year: 2013

A one-day workshop on the appropriate method for hand washing was held at a nursery school in order for the children to improve their awareness of the importance of hand hygiene. The workshop also investigated how children's hand washing skills might be changed in an age-dependent manner. On November 4, 2011, pupils of a nursery school in Sanjo City, Niigata, Japan, attended a short lecture on hand washing and disinfection held at the school. The numbers of first- (3 to 4 years old), second- (4 to 5 years old) and third-grade (5 to 6 years old) pupils who participated were 39, 27, and 44, respectively. They also learned and sang a “hand washing song.” After the training, the children applied fluorescent lotion to both hands and performed hand washing with soap and running tap water for more than 30 seconds according to the scrub method which they had just learned. The numbers and positions of the areas with remaining fluorescent dye were examined under black light and recorded on check sheets to compare the hand washing skills of the first- and third-grade children. The results revealed that the third-grade children had significantly better hand washing skills than the first-grade children. Distribution of the areas with remaining fluorescent dye on the hands of the third-grade children was comparable to the data of adults obtained from our previous studies. This study suggests that children aged 5 to 6 years can understand and practice the appropriate scrub method of hand washing. © 2013, Japanese Society for Infection Prevention and Control. All rights reserved.

A workshop on healthcare-associated infection control was held for the medical staff to improve training in appropriate hand hygiene using fluorescent dye. Fluorescent lotion (2 mL) was rubbed on both hands in a manner similar to rubbing in antiseptic hand rub. The remaining fluorescent areas were then sketched under UV light to assess the effectiveness of the rubbing method. Afterwards, the staff applied fluorescent lotion to both hands and performed the scrub method for more than 30 sec with soap under running water. Then, the remaining fluorescent areas were sketched to assess the effectiveness of the scrub method. The areas that were missed by the rubbing method were rather smaller compared to the areas that were missed by the scrub method. The missed areas on the back of hands were rather large compared to the palm. A positive relationship was observed between the number of untouched parts in the scrub method and rubbing method. Therefore, the missed areas in both the back of hands and the palm were compared. Significant difference was found between the pharmacists and the medical clerks in the rubbing method. Both pharmacists and medical clerks might touch tablets directly with bare hands under the management of pharmacists. It is important to continue the training of appropriate hand hygiene for medical staff. © 2012, Japanese Society for Infection Prevention and Control. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, Headquarters, Regional Office for the Americas and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Global health promotion | Year: 2016

The World Health Organization (WHO) MPOWER is a technical package of six tobacco control measures that assist countries in meeting their obligations of the WHO Framework Convention Tobacco Control and are proven to reduce tobacco use. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) systematically monitors adult tobacco use and tracks key tobacco control indicators.GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults aged 15 and older, using a standard and consistent protocol across countries; it includes information on the six WHO MPOWER measures. GATS Phase I was conducted from 2008-2010 in 14 high-burden low- and middle-income countries. We selected one key indicator from each of the six MPOWER measures and compared results across 14 countries.Current tobacco use prevalence rates ranged from 16.1% in Mexico to 43.3% in Bangladesh. We found that the highest rate of exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace was in China (63.3%). We found the highest smoking quit attempt rates in the past 12 months among cigarette smokers in Viet Nam (55.3%) and the lowest rate was in the Russian Federation (32.1%). In five of the 14 countries, more than one-half of current smokers in those 5 countries said they thought of quitting because of health warning labels on cigarette packages. The Philippines (74.3%) and the Russian Federation (68.0%) had the highest percentages of respondents noticing any cigarette advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Manufactured cigarette affordability ranged from 0.6% in Russia to 8.0% in India.Monitoring tobacco use and tobacco control policy achievements is crucial to managing and implementing measures to reverse the epidemic. GATS provides internationally-comparable data that systematically monitors and tracks the progress of the other five MPOWER measures.

Thomas E.,Regional Office for the Americas | van Zonneveld M.,Regional Office for the Americas | van Zonneveld M.,Ghent University | Loo J.,Headquarters | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon basin, but is generally believed to have been domesticated in Mesoamerica for the production of chocolate beverage. However, cacao's distribution of genetic diversity in South America is also likely to reflect pre-Columbian human influences that were superimposed on natural processes of genetic differentiation. Here we present the results of a spatial analysis of the intra-specific diversity of cacao in Latin America, drawing on a dataset of 939 cacao trees genotypically characterized by means of 96 SSR markers. To assess continental diversity patterns we performed grid-based calculations of allelic richness, Shannon diversity and Nei gene diversity, and distinguished different spatially coherent genetic groups by means of cluster analysis. The highest levels of genetic diversity were observed in the Upper Amazon areas from southern Peru to the Ecuadorian Amazon and the border areas between Colombia, Peru and Brazil. On the assumption that the last glaciation (22,000-13,000 BP) had the greatest pre-human impact on the current distribution and diversity of cacao, we modeled the species' Pleistocene niche suitability and overlaid this with present-day diversity maps. The results suggest that cacao was already widely distributed in the Western Amazon before the onset of glaciation. During glaciations, cacao populations were likely to have been restricted to several refugia where they probably underwent genetic differentiation, resulting in a number of genetic clusters which are representative for, or closest related to, the original wild cacao populations. The analyses also suggested that genetic differentiation and geographical distribution of a number of other clusters seem to have been significantly affected by processes of human management and accompanying genetic bottlenecks. We discuss the implications of these results for future germplasm collection and in situ, on farm and ex situ conservation of cacao. © 2012 Thomas et al.

Vinceti B.,Headquarters | Loo J.,Headquarters | Gaisberger H.,Headquarters | van Zonneveld M.J.,Regional Office for the Americas | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts. © 2013 Vinceti et al.

Lang G.T.,U.S. Army | Harrigan M.J.,Headquarters
Military Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: Helicopter pilots are exposed to noise at work and are at risk of developing hearing loss in excess of that which naturally results from aging. We investigated whether Lynx pilots demonstrated changes to hearing thresholds that differed from Apache pilots. Methods: Survey responses were combined with audiometric data from a retrospective cohort of 59 Lynx and 87 Apache pilots. Subjects' audiograms were analyzed for air conduction thresholds with age correction performed in accordance with ISO 7029. Annual changes in low frequencies (0.5-2 kHz) and high frequencies (3-6 kHz) were calculated. Subjects were categorized for time in service and flying hours. Results: Hearing was better than predicted at nearly all frequencies in both ears for Lynx and Apache pilots. There w ere no differences inhearing between groups of pilots. Significant differences in hearing threshold changes existed for pilots with 20 or moreyears of service compared to those in other categories. Discussion: The results suggest that the circumaural earmuffs currently incorporated into the flying helmet mitigate the risk of noise-induced hearing loss in these pilots. © Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S. All rights reserved.

Roth H.,Application Laboratory Stuttgart | Neubrand T.,Headquarters
Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits, IPFA | Year: 2012

As an example for interconnections in 3D integrated packages we inspected through mold vias (TMV) in a stacked mold embedded package recently presented by Braun et al. [1] by novel microfocus X-ray tomography (microCT). The resulting 3D images and slices visualize the coating of the laser drilled holes as well as fill grains in the molding compound at micron resolution, revealing coating defects. In the same sample, Microvias and BGA solder joints were imaged reproducing our previous results [2, 3, 4] yet on a higher level of integration. These interconnections were checked for misalignment and land wetting, respectively, identifying the typical defect signature. © 2012 IEEE.

Wang P.,National University of Defense Technology | Wu Y.,National University of Defense Technology | Hu X.,National University of Defense Technology | Ruan Q.,National University of Defense Technology | Yuan H.,Headquarters
Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Industrial Control and Electronics Engineering, ICICEE 2012 | Year: 2012

The analysis of geomagnetic map suitability is one of the key techniques in geomagnetic aided navigation system. Suitability evaluation using the single feature parameter may lead to misjudgment. By considering a group of geomagnetic map feature parameters such as standard deviation, roughness, gradient deviation, information entropy, and fisher information content, the principal component analysis method is used to achieve synthetical evaluation value of candidate matching areas by endogenetic weight. The experiment results indicate well consistency between the synthetical evaluation value and the matching probability. The synthetical evaluation value may be regarded as a quantitative index of suitability to select appropriate geomagnetic aided navigation matching areas. © 2012 IEEE.

Michaud E.C.,Headquarters | Maxwell G.L.,Headquarters
Military Medicine | Year: 2012

The authors provide some back ground and general concepts for medical stability operations or medical civil military operations. Some novel programs were developed in northern Iraq, which have applicability to the greater military medical community. Train the trainer emergency medical technician and first aid course curriculums were developed and translated into Arabic and Kurdish and implemented by U.S. medics throughout northern Iraq. The Division also contracted with implementing partners to train first aid and midwife training in Iraqi and U.S. Government priority locations. The implementing partners included 6 nongovernmental organizations and international organizations. These programs were closely synchronized with the Department of State and the United States Agency for International Development to ensure unity of effort and sustainability. © Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

Headquarters | Date: 2014-06-23

Musical sound recordings. Hats; Hooded sweat shirts; Shirts; Shirts for women; T-shirts; Tank tops. Entertainment services in the nature of live musical performances.

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