Cracchiolo J.R.,Head and Neck Service |
Baxi S.S.,New York |
Morris L.G.,Head and Neck Service |
Ganly I.,Head and Neck Service |
And 3 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2016
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in the primary surgical treatment of patients with early T classification (T1-T2) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), with the stated goal of de-escalating or avoiding adjuvant treatment. Herein, the authors sought to determine the degree to which this interest has translated into changes in practice patterns, and the rates of adverse postoperative pathologic features. METHODS: Patients with T1 to T2 OPSCC in the National Cancer Data Base who were treated from 2004 through 2013 were categorized as receiving primary surgical or primary radiation-based treatment. Trends in treatment selection and factors related to the selection of primary surgery were examined. The rates of adverse pathologic features including positive surgical margins, extracapsular spread (ECS), and advanced T and N classifications after surgery were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 8768 patients with T1 to T2 OPSCC, 68% underwent primary surgical treatment, increasing from 56% in 2004 to 82% in 2013 (P<.0001). The highest versus lowest volume hospitals treated 78% versus 59% of patients with primary surgery (odds ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.22 [P<.0001]). Higher lymph node classification was found to be predictive of lower rates of primary surgery, but the majority of patients with clinical N2/N3 disease underwent primary surgery. Among patients treated with surgery, positive surgical margins were present in 24% and ECS in 25% of patients. The rate of positive surgical margins decreased over time (P<.0001) and was observed less often at high-volume centers (P<.0001). Among candidates for single-modality therapy (those with clinical T1-T2/N0-N1 disease), 33% had positive surgical margins and/or ECS and 47% had at least 1 adverse feature (T3-T4 disease, N2-N3 disease, positive surgical margins, and/or ECS). CONCLUSIONS: Primary surgical treatment among patients with early T classification OPSCC has become more widespread. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Mizrachi A.,Head and Neck Service |
Cotrim A.P.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
Katabi N.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Mitchell J.B.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Radiation Research | Year: 2016
Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). One of the major side effects of radiotherapy is injury to the salivary glands (SG), which is thought to be mediated by microvascular dysfunction leading to permanent xerostomia. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of radiation-induced microvasculature damage and its impact on SG function. We measured bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) apoptosis and ceramide production in response to 5 Gy irradiation, either alone or with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers. We then investigated the effect of a single 15 Gy radiation dose on murine SG function. BAECs exposed to 5 Gy underwent apoptosis with increased ceramide production, both prevented by ROS scavengers. Among the 15 Gy irradiated mice, there was considerable weight loss, alopecia and SG hypofunction manifested by reduced saliva production and lower lysozyme levels. All of these effects, except for the lysozyme levels, were prevented by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. Microvessel density was significantly lower in the SG of irradiated mice compared to the control group, and this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with Tempol. This study demonstrates that radiation-induced SG hypofunction is to a large extent mediated by microvascular dysfunction involving ceramide and ROS generation. These findings strongly suggest that ROS scavengers may serve as potential radioprotectors of SG function in patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNSCC. © 2016 by Radiation Research Society.
Prediction of prolonged mechanical ventilation for intensive care unit patients: A cohort study [Predicción de la ventilación mecánica prolongada en pacientes de la unidad de cuidado intensivo: Estudio de cohorte]
Sanabria A.,Head and Neck Service |
Sanabria A.,University of La Sabana |
Sanabria A.,University of Antioquia |
Gomez X.,Head and Neck Service |
And 3 more authors.
Colombia Medica | Year: 2013
Introduction: There are no established guidelines for selecting patients for early tracheostomy. The aim was to determine the factors that could predict the possibility of intubation longer than 7 days in critically ill adult patients. Methods: This is cohort study made at a general intensive care unit. Patients who required at least 48 hours of mechanical ventilation were included. Data on the clinical and physiologic features were collected for every intubated patient on the third day. Uni- and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted to determine the variables associated with extubation. Results: 163 (62%) were male, and the median age was 59±17 years. Almost one-third (36%) of patients required mechanical ventilation longer than 7 days. The variables strongly associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation were: age (HR 0.97 (95% CI 0.96-0.99); diagnosis of surgical emergency in a patient with a medical condition (HR 3.68 (95% CI 1.62-8.35), diagnosis of surgical condition-non emergency (HR 8.17 (95% CI 2.12-31.3); diagnosis of non-surgical-medical condition (HR 5.26 (95% CI 1.85-14.9); APACHE II (HR 0.91 (95% CI 0.85-0.97) and SAPS II score (HR 1.04 (95% CI 1.00-1.09) The area under ROC curve used for prediction was 0.52. 16% of patients were extubated after day 8 of intubation. Conclusions: It was not possible to predict early extubation in critically ill adult patients with invasive mechanical ventilation with common clinical scales used at the ICU. However, the probability of successfully weaning patients from mechanical ventilation without a tracheostomy is low after the eighth day of intubation.
Gupta A.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Feifer A.H.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Gotto G.T.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Kraus D.,Head and Neck Service |
And 6 more authors.
Urology | Year: 2011
Objective To examine histologic findings and clinical outcomes of patients whounderwent neck dissection for residual neck masses. Methods From 1987 to 2008, 968 postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissections (RPLND) were performed at our institution. We identified 41 of these patients who underwent a postchemotherapy residual neck mass resection. Results Thirty-nine patients presented with primary testis, one with retroperitoneal, and one with mediastinal GCT. Teratoma was present in 54% of patients at diagnosis. During the neck dissection, 23 (56.1%) patients had teratoma, 14 (34.2%) had fibrosis, three (7.3%) had viable GCT, and one had benign lymph nodes. There was histologic discordance between the neck and the RPLND in 22.5% of patients and between the neck and other extraretroperitoneal resection sites in 26.5% of patients. At a median follow-up of 49.5 months from diagnosis, 16 patients had recurrence, and seven had died of testis cancer. No patient had recurrence in the neck. Five of seven patients with residual viable cancer at extraretroperitoneal resection sites died of disease compared with two of 23 with teratoma and none with fibrosis (P = .0005). Conclusions Resection of residual postchemotherapy neck masses is indicated because of the high incidence of viable tumor or teratoma in the residual mass and the inability to accurately predict the histology of the neck masses. Resection of residual neck masses leads to excellent local control and can contribute to long-term disease control and survival. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
PubMed | Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Head and Neck Service, Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program and Ludwig Collaborative Swim Across America Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JCI insight | Year: 2016
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated a clear survival advantage in advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with immune checkpoint blockade. These emerging results reveal that HNSCC is one of the most promising frontiers for immunotherapy research. However, further progress in head and neck immuno-oncology will require a detailed understanding of the immune infiltrative landscape found in these tumors. We leveraged transcriptome data from 280 tumors profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to comprehensively characterize the immune landscape of HNSCC in order to develop a rationale for immunotherapeutic strategies in HNSCC and guide clinical investigation. We find that both HPV