Sharma B.K.,Shobhit University |
Agarwal R.P.,Shobhit University |
Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing | Year: 2012
Software watermarking is the process of hiding information in a program or source code to protect the piracy of the software. Software piracy is a great threat for software industry because of every country losing millions of dollars every year. To protect the software piracy of the software's, variety of prevention techniques have been developed for copyright protection of software codes using both hardware and software. But, unfortunately no single technique is currently strong enough to protect the piracy of software codes. However, through a combination of techniques software developers are using for better protection of their software codes. In this paper, we have explained various static and dynamic techniques of software watermarking. In static watermarking techniques, the watermarks are stored in the source code, either in data section or code section where as in dynamic watermarking techniques the watermarks are generated during program execution. In this paper we have proposed a combination of static software watermarking techniques for structural programming by equation reordering and function dependency oriented sequencing (FDOS). In this method we embed the watermark in source code by a nested procedure wherein we firstly interchange the safe operands of mathematical equation and secondly impose an ordering on the mutual independent functions by introducing bogus dependency. © 2012 Springer India Pvt. Ltd.
Dutta M.K.,Galgotias University |
Pathak V.K.,HBTI |
Gupta P.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010
This paper proposes an efficient watermarking algorithm which embeds watermark data adaptively in the audio signal. The algorithm embeds the watermark in the host audio signal in such a way that the degree of embedding (DOE) is adaptive in nature and is chosen in a justified manner according to the localized content of the audio. The watermark embedding regions are selectively chosen in the high energy regions of the audio signal which make the embedding process robust to synchronization attacks. Synchronization codes are added along with the watermark in the wavelet domain and hence the embedded data can be subjected to self synchronization and the synchronization code can be used as a check to combat false alarm that results from data modification due to watermark embedding. The watermark is embedded by quantization of the singular value decompositions in the wavelet domain which makes the process perceptually transparent. The experimental results suggest that the proposed algorithm maintains a good perceptual quality of the audio signal and maintains good robustness against signal processing attacks. Comparative analysis indicates that the proposed algorithm of adaptive DOE has superior performance in comparison to existing uniform DOE. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Kulkarni A.V.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur |
Jain V.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur |
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management | Year: 2011
The electrochemical spark micromachining (ECSMM) process is investigated for micromachining of metals and non-metals. The novelty of the present paper is three-fold. Firstly, the wide choice of materials (copper, tantalum and quartz, soda lime glass) and secondly, the shape of the microchannels carved. Direct comparison of surface topography in case of metals and non-metals is achieved. Microholes are drilled in copper and tantalum using platinum tool. In case of quartz and soda lime glass, the microchannels are carved using copper tool of 200 μm diameter wire. The difference between the surface topography in the metal and non-metal is attributed to their thermal properties and crystallographic nature. The developed ECSMM process is competitive and it takes around 2 min for machining microholes and around 8 min for microchannels of the size and shape reported in this paper. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Dwivedi D.K.,Mmm University Of Technology |
Pathak H.P.,Mmm University Of Technology |
Shukla N.,Mmm University Of Technology |
Journal of Ovonic Research | Year: 2014
Thin films of a-Se75-xTe25Sbx were prepared by vacuum evaporation technique in a base pressure of 10-6 Torr on to well cleaned glass substrate. a-Se75-xTe25Sbx thin films were annealed at different temperatures below their crystallization temperatures for 2h. The structural analysis of the films has been investigated using X-ray diffraction technique. The x-ray pattern indicates that the as- prepared films are amorphous in nature but it shows some polycrystalline structure in amorphous phases after annealing. The optical band gap of as prepared and annealed films as a function of photon energy in the wavelength range 400-1100 nm has been studied. It has been found that the optical band gap decreases with increasing annealing temperatures in the present system.
Yadav R.,IPIRTI |
International Journal of Plastics Technology | Year: 2014
An epoxy resin based on cardanol and varying content of CTBN was cured using polyamine as a hardener. The ultimate aim of the study was to modify the brittle epoxy matrix by the liquid rubber to improve toughness characteristics. FTIR of the modified was performed to understand the structural transformations taking place during the uncured and cured stage of the modified systems. Also, the structures were proposed on the basis of the results of NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopic analysis along with GPC analysis. Mechanical properties of neat as well as modified networks have been studied to observe the effect of rubber modification. The improvement in these properties indicates that the rubber-modified resin would be more durable than the pure epoxy based on cardanol. A clear-cut two-step mass loss in dynamic thermogravimetric trace of unmodified and CTBN-modified systems was observed. Modified cardanol based epoxy network displayed two phase separated morphology. © 2014 Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology.