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Kapfenberger W.,OBB Infrastruktur AG | Fluckiger M.,HBI Haerter AG | Wili U.,TÜV SÜD | Heland J.,Deutsche Bahn Energie | And 3 more authors.
eb - Elektrische Bahnen | Year: 2015

Cross-sections of tunnels for new lines are optimised for cost-saving and they are partly reduced during the renovation of upgraded lines. In case of small cross-sections, questions concerning the aerodynamics, the air flow and the contact force of the pantograph inside the tunnel are raised. The Working Group Aerodynamics of current collectors in small tunnels examined by means of measurements and simulations whether in case of the minimization of the cross-sections of tunnels the specifications of the European standards and the TSI Energy can still be fulfilled.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRADEV-1-2014 | Award Amount: 1.37M | Year: 2015

Challenges like climate change, economic, social and sustainable development as well as security are closely linked to the energy supply of European societies. In 2009, the European Union adopted a climate and energy package including that at least 20% of EU gross final energy consumption have to come from renewable energy sources until 2020. The challenge of RICAS2020 is given by intermittent renewable energy sources which require increased energy storage to time shift this energy to meet daily demand. As a consequence, the demand for technologies for providing and storing energy is consequently increasing. The RICAS2020 Design Study for the European Underground Research Infrastructure related to Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) will provide concepts to set-up a research infrastructure dedicated to underground storage of very high amounts of green energy. The big advantage of the new concepts will be that the underground energy storage can be performed independently from the encountered geological conditions and also at all places where high energy demand exists. AA-CAES collects the heat produced by compression and returns it to the air when the air is expanded to generate power and thus delivers higher efficiencies via a zero-carbon process. The Design Study RICAS2020 will provide concepts on the key criteria and focus on technical, legal, institutional and financial requirements of such a research facility and will be open for the whole European Research Area, especially for all research fields close to Energy Providers and Suppliers. RICAS2020 will be located as an extension to the research infrastructure Research@ZaB in Eisenerz, Austria, which is financed by the Austrian government and designed as a European Underground Research-, Training- and Test-facility focussing on underground mobility including tunnels and subways. Synergies between RICAS2020 and Research@ZaB will be given in all underground technologies.


For rail tunnels which are long, heavily used and intended for high-speed traffic, the aspects of aerodynamics, climate and ventilation may require particular design solutions. Pressure fluctuations require measures at the structures, the tunnel equipment and the rolling stock. Acceptable climate conditions are required despite heat input from the ground, rolling stock and/or technical equipment. The design of the mechanical tunnel ventilation system (TVS) is influenced by the geothermal and topographical boundary conditions as well as the occupational health and the safety requirements among other factors. In turn, the TVS influences the structural layout of the tunnel. The example of the Base Tunnel (BT) on the project Corredor Bioceanico Aconcagua (CBA) is intended to illustrate the importance of some of these aspects in a tunnelling project. The CBA is a planned rail link between Chile and Argentina with a length of about 215 km. An important component of the CBA project is a 53 km long BT (CBABT) which allows the most direct crossing of the Andes with moderate gradients. The BT is the subject of on-going conceptual studies. © 2013 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.


In very long rail tunnels (> 20 km), emergency stations (NHS) are provided for trains to stop in case of an incident. Emergency stations are constructionally detailed and equipped so that the passengers can be evacuated quickly and safely in case of an incident such as a fire in a train. Such emergency stations are provided in the existing Lötschberg Base Tunnel (CH, opened 2007) and similar tunnels that are currently under construction, the Gotthard Base Tunnel (CH), Brenner Base Tunnel (A), new Semmering Base Tunnel (A) and Koralm Tunnel (A). The present article compares and explains in detail the ventilation and safety aspects of emergency stations and the construction detailing, ventilation and safety equipment, which have to be considered in the design of an emergency station. © 2013 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.


Ilg L.,ILG Engineering | Di Miele A.,HBI Haerter AG | Frey S.,HBI Haerter AG | Graf E.,HBI Haerter AG | And 2 more authors.
BHR Group - 14th International Symposium on Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Tunnels | Year: 2011

In two-tube road tunnels, the adjacent tube generally serves as a 'safe haven' for tunnel users fleeing from an incident. Access is through cross passages that are distributed over the tunnel length. The design and the underlying regulations for cross passages of road tunnels differ considerably from country to country. Generally, it is understood that the cross passages have to be kept free from smoke and that a minimum inflow of fresh air has to be provided in order to prevent smoke from entering the escape tube through open doors. But if it comes to the technical details on how to achieve this goal, different approaches in various countries show a wide spectrum of solutions. The paper focuses on cross passages in long two tube road tunnels and the problem of unfavourable pressure forces acting on escape doors. Where national guidelines prescribe standard wing doors as escape doors, the design and control of the tunnel ventilation poses a considerable challenge. The balance of providing a minimum overpressure to guarantee fresh air supply and not to exceed the pressure limit for manageable door mechanisms is hard to achieve, sometimes leading to complicated layouts that might not prove robust in every possible case of a real incident. On the basis of experience from road tunnel projects in several European countries, the authors give an overview over the different regulations and approaches and point out the difficulties that often occur. The pros and cons for using sliding doors are discussed as well as the need for independent pressurisation systems or passive pressure control devices. A calculation method is demonstrated and different control strategies for the road tunnel ventilation with regard to the conditions at the cross passage are discussed. © BHR Group 2011.


Altenburger P.,HBI Haerter AG | Riess I.,HBI Haerter AG | Brandt R.,HBI Haerter AG
BHR Group - 16th International Symposium on Aerodynamics, Ventilation and Fire in Tunnels 2015 | Year: 2015

The following controller types for effective closed-loop control of longitudinal airflow velocity in road tunnels in case of fire have been investigated and optimised: PI-/PID-controller (proportional-integral-derivative controller) MPC-controller (model predictive controller) In general, for the control of the longitudinal velocity in road tunnels, classic controllers as PI/PID-controllers are used. The control parameters are usually determined by "trial and error". However, if the control parameters are not optimised adequately, there is a risk of slow control and oscillating. Only with optimised control parameters, a fast and robust control can be guaranteed. A modern controller, which is becoming increasingly important in control theory, is the MPC-controller. The two controller types have been optimised and compared according to several criteria. © BHR Group ISAVFT 2015.

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