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Abbottābād, Pakistan

Ihsan-ul-Haq,Hazara Agriculture Research Station | Rab A.,University of Peshawar
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and fruit cracking in four litchi cultivars. Significant variations were observed in different litchi cultivars and CaCl 2 and borax treatments. The means revealed that cultivar Gola had the highest fruit skin calcium content (7.67 mg/100 g DW), ion leakage from skin discs (31.11%) and fruit cracking (21.91%) but the least skin strength (2.44 kg cm -2). Skin boron content was the highest in cultivars Gola (0.203 mg/100 g DW). Cultivar Bedana had the highest fruit skin strength (3.39 kg cm -2) and the least mean ion leakage (18.86%) and fruit cracking (13.26%). Foliar application of CaCl 2 and borax significantly increased the mean fruit skin calcium content (4.79 mg/100 g DW), boron content (0.109 mg/100 g DW), and skin strength (2.43 kg cm -2) from the least in the control to the highest 8.88 mg/100 g DW, 0.247 mg/100 g DW and 3.01 kg cm -2 with CaCl 2 3 + boron 1.5% treatment respectively, while ion leakage (35.17%) and fruit cracking (25.40%) in the control decreased to 16.17 and 11.14% respectively with CaCl 2 3% + boron 1.5% treatment. The Ca content of the litchi fruit skin in the control vs. Rest, control vs. CaCl 2 and control vs. CaCl 2 + borax increased from 4.79 to 7.36 mg/100 g DW, 4.85 and 8.20 mg/100 g DW respectively. The boron content of the fruit skin also increased in the control vs. Rest (0.11 vs. 0.21 mg/100 g DW), control vs. CaCl 2 (0.11 vs. 0.14 mg/100 g DW), control vs. CaCl 2 + Borax (0.11 vs. 0.23 mg/100 g DW) and CaCl 2 vs. CaCl 2 + Borax (0.14 vs. 0.23 mg/100 g DW) treatments. The mean ion leakage decreased from 35.17 in the control to 24.10% in control vs. Rest, 30.26% in control vs. CaCl 2 and 22.05% in control vs. CaCl 2+Borax. Similarly, the ion leakage decline from 30.06 to 22.05 in CaCl 2 vs. CaCl 2 + Borax means. © 2012 Academic Journals. Source


Rab A.,University of Peshawar | Ihsan-Ul-Haq,Hazara Agriculture Research Station
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2012

The influence of irrigation intervals on the physicochemical quality attributes and fruit cracking of litchi cultivars was investigated by irrigating 4 litchi cultivars at intervals of 3, 6, and 9 days. It was found that cultivars Gola and Bedana had the highest and lowest fruit weight (21.90 g and 14.31 g), pulp weight (16.478 g and 10.85 g), total soluble solids (22.16% and 16.37%), total sugars (21.22% and 15.28%), and fruit cracking (41.60% and 10.40%). While cultivar Gola also had the highest reducing sugars (18.01%) but the lowest nonreducing sugars (3.80%), cultivar Bedana had the lowest reducing sugars (5.68%) and the highest nonreducing sugars (10.02%). Similarly, cultivar Bedana had the highest skin strength (3.33 kg cm-2) compared to the lowest (2.16 kg cm-2) in cultivar Gola. The highest skin calcium content (4.916 mg 100 g-1 DW) was recorded in cultivar Surahi, while boron was the highest (0.112 mg 100 g-1 DW) in cultivar China. In contrast, Bedana had the lowest calcium (3.976 mg 100 g-1 DW) and boron (0.10 mg 100 g-1 DW) contents. The fruit and pulp weight decreased significantly with an irrigation interval of 9 days but the fruit cracking percentage increased significantly from 20.48% at a 3-day irrigation interval to 27.55% and 31.45% at irrigation intervals of 6 and 9 days, respectively. Increasing irrigation intervals decreased the skin strength and calcium content of the fruit but increased the reducing sugars and ion leakage from skin disks. The data suggest that both pulp and skin characteristics of litchi fruit may determine fruit cracking susceptibility and that increasing the irrigation intervals promotes the incidence of cracking. © TÜBİTAK. Source


Rab A.,University of Peshawar | Haq I.-u.,Hazara Agriculture Research Station
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2012

The influence of CaCl2 and borax on growth, yield, and quality of tomato was investigated during the years 2009 and 2010. The experiment was laid out with a randomized complete block design. Calcium chloride (0.3% and 0.6%) and borax (0.2% and 0.4%) solutions were applied as foliar sprays either alone or in combination and data were recorded for plant height, branches per plant, flowers per cluster, fruits per plant, yield, fruit weight, fruit firmness, and total soluble solid content of the fruit. The application of CaCl2 alone significantly increased the plant height and fruits per plant and decreased the incidence of blossom end rot. Borax alone significantly enhanced the number of branches per plant, number of flowers per cluster, fruits per cluster, fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit firmness, and total soluble solid content of the fruits. Foliar application of CaCl2 (0.6%) + borax (0.2%) resulted in the maximum plant height (86.60 cm), branches per plant (7.21), flowers per cluster (32.36), fruits per plant (96.37), fruit weight (96.33 g), yield (21.33 t ha-1), fruit firmness (3.46 kg cm-2), and total soluble solids (6.10%) and the lowest blossom end rot incidence (6.25%). However, the difference among 0.6% CaCl2 + 0.2% borax, 0.3% CaCl2 + 0.2% borax, and 0.6% CaCl2 + 0.4% borax was nonsignificant. Source


Haq I.U.,Hazara Agriculture Research Station | Rab A.,University of Peshawar
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

The study on characterization of physico-chemical attributes of litchi fruit and its relation with fruit skin cracking was conducted to evaluate litchi cultivars for fruit quality attributes such as fruit size, fruit weight, pulp weight, TSS, total sugars, fruit cracking, fruit specific gravity, reducing and non reducing sugars, skin strength and its boron and calcium content. There were no significant difference in plant age group 10 and 20 years except skin strength and skin calcium content but litchi cultivars varied significantly for most of the studied parameters. Cultivar Gola with fruit weight (23.08g), pulp weight (16.58g), TSS (22.13%) and total sugars (21.57%) was significantly superior in quality attributes but also had the maximum fruit cracking (43.50%) than the rest of the cultivars. Cultivar Gola also had the highest reducing sugars (17.98%) and specific gravity (1.092) but the least non reducing sugars (3.59%) amongst the cultivars under study while cultivar Bedana had the least reducing sugar (5.67%) and specific gravity (1.031) but the most non reducing sugars (9.76%). Skin strength (3.26 kg cm-2) and boron content (0.12 mg/100g DW) were highest in cultivar Bedana, while the highest calcium content was in cultivar Surahi (5.00 mg/100g DW). Source


Haq I.,Hazara Agriculture Research Station | Rab A.,University of Peshawar | Sajid M.,University of Peshawar
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax on the fruit quality of litchi cultivars was investigated by applying1-3% Calcium either alone or in combination with 0.5 to 1.5 Borax. The litchi cultivars varied significantly for quality traits. Cultivar Gola had the highest fruit weight (23.54 g), pulp weight (17.16 g), TSS (22.54%), total sugars (21.45%), reducing sugars (17.96%) and specific gravity (1.1051), while cultivar Bedana had the highest non-reducing sugars (9.72%). Foliar application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) alone had no significant effect on most of the quality variables, however, CaCl2 + Borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O) application increased the fruit weight (19.87 g), pulp weight (14.88 g) and pulp dry weight (13.76%) in control fruits to the maximum of 20.79, 15.69 g and 15.40% respectively with CaCl2 (3%) + Borax (1.5%). No variations were observed in total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars of litchi fruit with application of CaCl2 alone, which increased significantly with foliar application of CaCl2 3% + Borax. The planned paired means comparison showed that the least fruit weight (19.87 g), pulp weight (14.88 g) and pulp dry weight % (13.76%) of control fruits increased significantly to 20.10 g, 14.94 g and 13.93% with CaCl2 application and further to 20.54 g, 15.38 g and 15.08% with CaCl2 + Borax treatments. The fruit weight, pulp weight and pulp dry weight % was significantly higher with CaCl2 + Borax foliar application as compared to CaCl2 alone. The total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars were not significantly affected by CaCl2 application but were significantly higher in Control vs. Rest, Control vs. CaCl2 + Borax and Ca vs. CaCl2 + Borax treatments means. Source

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