Manatee Road, FL, United States
Manatee Road, FL, United States

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Rayamajhi D.,Oregon State University | Nguyen T.V.,Hayward Baker Inc. | Ashford S.A.,Oregon State University | Boulanger R.W.,University of California at Davis | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2014

Discrete columns, such as stone and soil-cement columns, are often used to improve the liquefaction resistance of loose sandy ground potentially subjected to strong shaking. The shear stress reduction in the loose ground resulting from the reinforcing effect of these stiffer discrete columns is often considered as a contributing mechanism for liquefaction mitigation. Current design practice often assumes that discrete columns and soil deform equally in pure shear (i.e., shear strain-compatible deformation). In addition, because the discrete column is stiffer than the soil, it is assumed to attract higher shear stress, thereby reducing the shear stress in the surrounding soil. In this paper, shear stress reduction in liquefiable soils and shear strain distribution between liquefiable soil and discrete columns along with the potential of development of tensile cracks is investigated using three-dimensional linear elastic, finite-element analysis. Parametric analyses are performed for a range of geometries, relative stiffness ratios, and dynamic loadings. These linear elastic results provide a baseline against which future nonlinear modeling results can be compared, but they are also sufficient for demonstrating that shear stress reductions are far less than predicted by the assumption of shear strain compatibility. These numerical results are consistent with those of other researchers and further call into question the appropriateness of the strain-compatibility assumption for design. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Nguyen T.V.,Hayward Baker Inc. | Rayamajhi D.,Oregon State University | Boulanger R.W.,Oregon State University | Ashford S.A.,University of California at Davis | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2013

Deep soil mixing (DSM) to form in-ground shear walls has been used to remediate against the potential effects of earthquakeinduced liquefaction on many projects. A grid pattern of soil-cement walls act as a confined shear box, which can provide additional shear stiffness and strength for sites to withstand liquefaction. Current design practice for DSM grids commonly relies on the strain compatibility assumption, where the DSM walls and confined soil are assumed to experience the same shear strain. In this paper, the distributions of shear stresses and strains in liquefiable soil deposits treated with DSM grids are investigated using three-dimensional linear elastic finite-element analyses of unit cells. Parametric analyses are performed for a range of geometries, relative stiffness ratios, and dynamic loadings. These linear elastic results provide a baseline against which future nonlinear modeling results can be compared, but they are also sufficient for demonstrating that shear stress reductions are less than predicted by the assumption of shear strain compatibility. Modifications to the shear strain compatibility equation are presented, which improve its agreementwith the results of these analyses. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Burke G.K.,Hayward Baker Inc.
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2012

The maturity of jet grouting is evident in the number of qualified, experienced contractors capable of this specialized construction technology. The degree of difficulty in the performance of this type of grouting has been largely overcome with experience. Recent innovations by various contractors and applications proven to be valued by the construction industry are discussed. Competitive bidding environments, design-build construction, and case histories reveal where this value has become apparent. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Zitny B.,Hayward Baker Inc. | Deklavs T.,Hayward Baker Inc.
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2015

The state of Texas currently produces over 12,000 MW of electricity from wind power (AWEA 2014), accounting for 8.3% of all electricity generated in the state in 2013 (AWEA 2014b). With continually expanding statewide renewable energy goals, Los Vientos, the new wind farm, constructed in Willacy County, Texas, added 402 MW of wind power to the state in 2012. Due to poor soil conditions, ground improvement was required at a number of the individual turbine tower foundation locations. Dry mass soil mixing proved to be an effective method to treat the 26 of the sites that had shallow groundwater. This paper discusses the design, construction, and verification of a dry mass soil mixing treatment program conducted at these sites. © ASCE 2015.


Lewis J.R.,Hayward Baker Inc. | Farr S.J.,Hayward Baker Inc.
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2015

Construction of a new multi-story high school in downtown Chicago, Illinois required a 5.5 m (18 ft) deep supported excavation. The 122 m (400 ft) × 30.5 m (100 ft) site was bordered on two sides by city streets and buried utilities, and on the other two sides by existing multi-story structures founded on shallow spread footings. The initial geotechnical exploration revealed the presence of urban fill underlain by very soft clay to depths well below the proposed excavation depth. An earth retention system (ERS) consisting of sheet piles and internal bracing was designed and constructed to protect the surrounding utilities and structures. Additionally, global stability was a concern due to the depth of the very soft clay and adjacent surcharge loads. This paper presents information about the design, construction, and observed performance of the excavation support system. © ASCE 2015.


Deklavs T.,Hayward Baker Inc.
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2015

The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages the Houston Ship Channel dredging operations, required to maintain the flow of barges within the ship channel. Disposing of the dredge materials requires the creation of disposal islands throughout the channel. A levee surrounds each island to contain the dredge material during a storm event, preventing spillage into the ship channel, which would inhibit movement of barges through the channel and shutting down all commerce. In 2009, the USACE led a project to increase the existing levee heights at a number of the islands to increase dredge storage capacity, including the Lost Lake Dredge Material Placement Area (DMPA). Lost Lake's current levee elevation of EL. +8.2 m (27.0 ft) required a change in grade to EL. +10.9 m (36.0 ft) an increase of 2.7 m (9 ft). During construction, the levee failed several times over a 640.0 m (2,100 ft) stretch. This portion of the levee had a history of failure. The poor soils beneath the levee footprint in this area required stabilization prior to increasing the elevation. The design-build team designed a deep soil mix (DSM) ground improvement program, which included shear panels with overlapping dry soil mix columns, to improve soil beneath the levee with a combined shear strength of 1,000 psf. The panels were constructed at varying depths and lengths depending on the strength of the in situ soil, and were perpendicular to the levee. Dry soil mixing proved to be challenging and required very precise planning and execution because it was located on an island, but also proved to be the most cost effective method due to the remote nature of the work. The levee now performs as designed since raising its elevation to EL. +10.9 m (36.0 ft) after ground improvement.


Dellaria J.,Hayward Baker Inc. | Zitny B.,Hayward Baker Inc.
Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Congress 2016 - Proceedings of the Joint Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Congress 2016 | Year: 2016

The William Eckhardt Research Center, a 25,500 square meter (275,000 square foot) building, was constructed on the University of Chicago campus. The structure features five floors above grade, a basement and a sub-basement. The proposed depth of excavation to construct the basement varied between 15 and 16.5 meters (49 and 54 feet). A diaphragm wall was selected as the earth retention system and permanent foundation wall due to its cost effectiveness and ability to minimize groundwater infiltration into the facility after construction. The urban, congested nature of the project location presented many design and construction challenges. The research center is located in the heart of the University of Chicago campus next to two active streets containing many utilities critical to the operation of the University, as well as two active research facilities, which house experiments that are highly sensitive to vibrations. To address these various challenges, multiple techniques were required to support each side of the excavation, including tiebacks, internal bracing, and micropile mid-span supports. The neighboring University research structures required underpinning which was accomplished using a combination of micropiles, tie downs, and jet grouting. Inclinometers and settlement points were installed and monitored throughout the braced excavation construction. The data collected showed negligible settlements, and horizontal deflections of less than 2.1 centimeters (0.8 inches) across the profile of the wall. © ASCE.


Schiermeyer R.,Hayward Baker Inc. | Harris J.,Hayward Baker Inc.
Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Congress 2016 - Proceedings of the Joint Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Congress 2016 | Year: 2016

Two masonry buildings in the Glenwood Springs area of Colorado had undergone significant differential settlement following their construction. The foundations consisted of spread footings and slab-on-grade. Compaction grouting was chosen as the remediation technique of choice to treat the collapsible soils beneath the two structures. Compaction grouting involves the injection of low-slump, stiff, low mobility grout to displace and densify the subsurface soils. Compaction grouting was performed at depths up to 100 ft below the structures. Since treatment of the subsurface soils via compaction grouting, there has been no further signs of distress or differential settlement in the buildings. © ASCE.


Dawson K.M.,Hayward Baker Inc.
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2010

Construction of new 914 mm, 1,219 mm, and 1,676 mm diameter sewer pipes by microtunneling on the East Boston Branch Sewer Relief Project for the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) required installation of 19 excavation support structures at jacking and receiving shaft locations. Three methods of excavation support were used: drilled soldier piles and lagging, drilled micropiles and contact lagging, and drilled secant piles. Jet grout bottom seals were installed at two excavation support structures. Jet grouting was also utilized to seal around existing utilities at one excavation support structure. The typical depth of excavation varied from 5.8 to 13.4 m. The excavation support method used at each jacking and receiving shaft was determined after evaluation of the existing soil conditions and logistical site constraints. Since portions of the tunnel alignment intercepted made-ground (fill), the soil conditions varied considerably along the tunnel alignment. Each excavation support structure was constructed in a congested urban environment. Presence of overhead and underground utilities and proximity to existing buildings impacted the excavation support method chosen for each shaft location. This paper presents an overview of the rationale used to determine the excavation support method utilized at each drop shaft, a review of the construction techniques used to build the excavation support structures, and the major lessons learned. © ASCE 2010.


Wolosick J.R.,Hayward Baker Inc.
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2010

Many major landslides that have occurred throughout the U.S. in the last 15 years have been repaired using drilled and grouted elements. The projects include public and private facilities for many types of owners including State DOTs, railroads, casinos, shopping malls, and apartment complexes. The use of drilled and grouted elements such as tieback anchors and micropiles have enabled these owners to repair their problems for reasonable costs and within tight schedules. Details of seven different landslides are presented in this paper. They are located in a wide range of geological conditions and terrains. These areas include Southern California, the Rocky Mountains, the Appalachian Mountains, middle Tennessee and the southern Mississippi River region. Massive stabilization forces have been imparted to the ground by the drilled and grouted elements to provide adequate factors of safety to stabilize the slide masses. © ASCE 2010.

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