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Merelani, Tanzania

Liu J.,University of Virginia | Gratz J.,Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute | Amour C.,Haydom Lutheran Hospital | Kibiki G.,Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

The TaqMan Array Card (TAC) system is a 384-well singleplex real-time PCR format that has been used to detect multiple infection targets. Here we developed an enteric TaqMan Array Card to detect 19 enteropathogens, including viruses (adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus GII, rotavirus, and sapovirus), bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli, Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains including enteroaggregative E. coli [EAEC], enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC], enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC], and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli [STEC]), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), protozoa (Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica), and helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura), as well as two extrinsic controls to monitor extraction and amplification efficiency (the bacteriophage MS2 and phocine herpesvirus). Primers and probes were newly designed or adapted from published sources and spotted onto microfluidic cards. Fecal samples were spiked with extrinsic controls, andDNAand RNAwere extracted using the QiaAmp StoolDNAminikit and the QuickGeneRNATissue kit, respectively, and then mixed with Ag- Path-ID One Step real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) reagents and loaded into cards. PCR efficiencies were between 90% and 105%, with linearities of 0.988 to 1. The limit of detection of the assays in the TAC was within a 10-fold difference from the cognate assays performed on plates. Precision testing demonstrated a coefficient of variation of below5%within a run and 14% between runs. Accuracy was evaluated for 109 selected clinical specimens and revealed an average sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 77%, respectively, compared with conventional methods (including microscopy, culture, and immunoassay) and 98% and 96%, respectively, compared with our laboratory-developed PCR-Luminex assays. This TAC allows fast, accurate, and quantitative detection of a broad spectrum of enteropathogens and is well suited for surveillance or clinical purposes. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source


Kruger C.,Haydom Lutheran Hospital
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare | Year: 2012

We reviewed our experience with the Tanzanian Telemedicine Network in supporting paediatric care at 40 small, rural hospitals in the country. The network began operating in 2008. Store and forward telemedicine was provided via the open source software iPath. The 33 volunteer consultants were based in several countries, although most of them had practical experience in Tanzania. During the first three years of network operation there were 533 referrals. There were 159 paediatric cases (median age five years). Three paediatric specialists provided most consultations (64%), but other specialists provided recommendations when required. The response time was usually less than two days (median 6 h; interquartile range 2-24 h). A precise recommendation was not always provided, but since all consultants had an intimate knowledge of the state of health services in Tanzania, their advice was usually well adapted to the local circumstances of the hospitals. Referral to a higher level of care was recommended in 26 cases (16%). A simple web-based telemedicine system combined with email alerts is feasible in remote locations in Tanzania, even where fast Internet connections are not available. Source


Winkler A.S.,TU Munich | Tluway A.,Haydom Lutheran Hospital | Schmutzhard E.,Innsbruck Medical University
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Objective: Febrile seizures may contribute to epilepsy later in life, but data in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We, therefore, conducted a hospital-based study on clinical characteristics of children with febrile seizures. Methods: Over 2 years, we screened all pediatric admissions of Haydom Lutheran Hospital, northern Tanzania, and recruited 197 children with febrile seizures. Results: The incidence of febrile seizures was 4% of all admitted children aged <10 years, with a mortality of almost 4%. The peak age at the first febrile seizure was 2 years. One of five children experienced repeated episodes, and the majority of children showed features of complex seizures. Approximately 20% of children had a positive family history of febrile seizures or epilepsy. Conclusion: Febrile seizures represent a frequent cause for admission of children, bearing a rather high mortality. Most children exhibit complex febrile seizures, which may contribute to the development of epilepsy later in life. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Ersdal H.L.,University of Stavanger | Ersdal H.L.,University of Oslo | Mduma E.,Haydom Lutheran Hospital | Svensen E.,Haydom Lutheran Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Resuscitation | Year: 2012

Aim of the study: Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions within 60. s in apneic newborn infants is thought to be essential in preventing progression to circulatory collapse based on experimental cardio-respiratory responses to asphyxia.The objectives were to describe normal transitional respiratory adaption at birth and to assess the importance of initiating basic resuscitation within the first minutes after birth as it relates to neonatal outcome. Methods: This is an observational study of neonatal respiratory adaptation at birth in a rural hospital in Tanzania. Research assistants (. n=. 14) monitored every newborn infant delivery and the response of birth attendants to a depressed baby. Time to initiation of spontaneous respirations or time to onset of breathing following stimulation/suctioning, or face mask ventilation (FMV) in apneic infants, and duration of FMV were recorded. Results: 5845 infants were born; 5689 were liveborn, among these 4769(84%) initiated spontaneous respirations; 93% in ≤30. s and 99% in ≤60. s. Basic resuscitation (stimulation, suction, and/or FMV) was attempted in 920/5689(16.0%); of these 459(49.9%) received FMV. Outcomes included normal . n=. 5613(96.0%), neonatal deaths . n=. 56(1.0%), admitted neonatal area . n=. 20(0.3%), and stillbirths . n=. 156(2.7%). The risk for death or prolonged admission increases 16% for every 30. s delay in initiating FMV up to six minutes (. p=. 0.045) and 6% for every minute of applied FMV (. p=. 0.001). Conclusions: The majority of lifeless babies were in primary apnea and responded to stimulation/suctioning and/or FMV. Infants who required FMV were more likely to die particularly when ventilation was delayed or prolonged. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Langli Ersdal H.,University of Stavanger | Langli Ersdal H.,University of Oslo | Mduma E.,Haydom Lutheran Hospital | Svensen E.,University of Bergen | And 2 more authors.
Neonatology | Year: 2012

Background: Intermittent fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during labor using an acoustic stethoscope is the most frequent method for fetal assessment of well-being in low- and middle-income countries. Evidence concerning reliability and efficacy of this technique is almost nonexistent. Objectives: To determine the value of routine intermittent FHR monitoring during labor in the detection of FHR abnormalities, and the relationship of abnormalities to the subsequent fresh stillbirths (FSB), birth asphyxia (BA), need for neonatal face mask ventilation (FMV), and neonatal deaths within 24 h. Methods: This is a descriptive observational study in a delivery room from November 2009 through December 2011. Research assistants/observers (n = 14) prospectively observed every delivery and recorded labor information including FHR and interventions, neonatal information including responses in the delivery room, and fetal/neonatal outcomes (FSB, death within 24 h, admission neonatal area, or normal). Results: 10,271 infants were born. FHR was abnormal (i.e. <120 or >160 beats/min) in 279 fetuses (2.7%) and absent in 200 (1.9%). Postnatal outcomes included FSB in 159 (1.5%), need for FMV in 695 (6.8%), BA (i.e. 5-min Apgar score <7) in 69 (0.7%), and deaths in 89 (0.9%). Abnormal FHR was associated with labor complications (OR = 31.4; 95% CI: 23.1-42.8), increased need for FMV (OR = 7.8; 95% CI: 5.9-10.1), BA (OR = 21.7; 95% CI: 12.7-37.0), deaths (OR = 9.9; 95% CI: 5.6-17.5), and FSB (OR = 35; 95% CI: 20.3-60.4). An undetected FHR predicted FSB (OR = 1,983; 95% CI: 922-4,264). Conclusions: Intermittent detection of an absent or abnormal FHR using a fetal stethoscope is associated with FSB, increased need for neonatal resuscitation, BA, and neonatal death in a limited-resource setting. The likelihood of an abnormal FHR is magnified with labor complications. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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