Hawler Medical University

Erbil, Iraq

Hawler Medical University is located in Arbil , capital of Kurdistan Region of Iraq. It was established in 2005.The university is made up of five colleges. The colleges of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy and Nursing were formerly belonged to Salahaddin University in Arbil. The university also includes a Medical Research Center and the newly established College of Health science that includes the departments of medical microbiology and clinical biochemistry. Wikipedia.

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Adham A.N.,Hawler Medical University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: The present investigation formulated in order to identify and quantify of caffeic and chlorogenic acid content in Ammi majus seed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: In the present study identification and quantification of caffeic and chlorogenic acid in Ammi majus seeds were investigated. Identification of these phenolic acids were done by using thin layer chromatography performed on a sheet of aluminium plates of silica gel as a stationary phase, suitable solvent systems which is Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Water (15:90:5:5), also use UV light and 5% Fecl3 for detection. This identification was further augmented by using high performance liquid chromatography and then quantified by using C18 column, isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile: water (0.5% orthophosphoric acid) 15:85) and UV/Visible 320 nm detector. Results: Thin layer chromatography analysis of seed extracts revealed the presence of caffeic and chlorogenic acid in Ammi majus seed. The HPLC method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and limit of detection and quantification. The percentage of caffeic acid 0.031% in higher quantity than chlorogenic acid. Calibration curve was linear over concentration 5-200 μg/ml with correlation coefficients 0.998 and 0.999 for caffeic and chlorogenic acid. The relative standard deviation of the method was less than 2% for intra and inter-day precision assay and the average recoveries were between 97.47-101.92%. The proposed method was found to be linear, accurate, and precise. Conclusion: This study confirms the presence of caffeic and chlorogenic acid in Ammi majus seed extracts and the percentage of caffeic acid higher than chlorogenic acid. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. All Rights Reserved.

Alalaf S.,Hawler Medical University
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2012

Study objective To compare the live birth rate of women presented with recurrent miscarriages in the first trimester due to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), randomized to either low molecular weight heparin (Bemiparin) or low dose aspirin (LDA) and to determine the maternal and fetal adverse effects in both treatment groups. Patients and methods A clinical comparative study was conducted in Maternity teaching Hospital, Erbil city, north of Iraq, Kurdistan region from 15th of September 2007 to the 1st of August 2010 on 141 women presented with 2 or more consecutive miscarriages due to APS, the women randomized to receive either prophylactic dose of Bemiparin with the diagnosis of pregnancy or LDA started preconceptioally and until 36 weeks gestation. The primary outcome was live birth rate in both treatment groups, the secondary outcomes were maternal and fetal complications in both trial groups. Result There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding demographic characters (age groups, parity, gestational age and history of previous abortion), and mode of delivery of the viable newborns. There was a statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups regarding live birth rate. The proportions of women who gave birth to a live infant were 72.13% in the LDA group and 86.25% in the Hibor group, the mean difference between the live birth rate in both group was 0.141 (95% Confidence interval of the difference, 0.08, 0.274). The average birth weight for women received LDA was significantly lower than women who received Bemiparin. Conclusion The use of the new second generation LMWH (Bemiparin) in comparison to LDA during pregnancy for prevention of recurrent miscarriage in women with APS is a safe, reliable method with a high live birth rate and no maternal and fetal complications. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Altaei T.,Hawler Medical University
BMC Dermatology | Year: 2012

Background: Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin characterized by symmetrical and confluent grey-brown patches usually on the areas of the face exposed to the sun. Silymarin strongly prevents photocarcinogenesis, and significantly prevented melanin production. The objectives of this study were the assessment of safety and efficacy of topical Silymain (SM) cream in a double-blind placebo controlled study for treatment of melasma patients.Methods: Experimentally on 24 Albino rabbits were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. [A] No treatment, [B] received placebo, [C] treated with SM cream (0.1), & [D] treated by SM (0.2), were applied topically before UV sun light exposure for 30 days, assessed clinically & tissue pathology. Clinically on 96 adults diagnosed with melasma randomized to three equal groups to receive one of the tested drugs applied twice daily for 4 weeks, evaluated by the response; lesion size, melasma area and severity index score, Physician global assessment, and subjective assessment.Results: The Clinical and histopathology observations were reduced significantly in SM groups. Clinically; all patients showed significant excellent pigment improvement & lesion size reduction with SM treatments from the 1st week. All patients were fully satisfied 100%. No side effects were observed.Conclusions: Silymarin showed tremendous improvement of melasma in a dose-dependent manner, and was effective in prevention of skin damage caused by U.V. sunlight. It is a safe new candidate effective treatment for melasma.Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12612000602820. © 2012 Altaei; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Al-Tawil N.G.,Hawler Medical University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Violence against women by intimate partners is still a public health problem. The study aims at finding out the prevalence of violence among women residing in Erbil city (Muslim culture) and in Ankawa sub-district (Christian culture), finding out the role of religion and culture on the prevalence, and finding out some other factors (like occupation of husband and wife, age at marriage, woman agreement for marriage, illegitimate relations of husband) that might be associated with violence. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Erbil during the second half of the year 2011. Two groups were considered; group one (G1) included women residing in Ankawa sub-district (representing Christian culture), and group two (G2) included women residing in Erbil city (representing Muslim culture). A convenience method of sampling was used to collect the sample (250 women of each group). Questionnaire was designed to collect information about history of exposure to physical, sexual, and psychological violence, in addition to the related factors. These forms were distributed (by women of the Assyrian Women Union) in sealed envelopes to women attending the Mass in three churches located in Ankawa. Women of Erbil group were recruited from the maternity teaching hospital of Erbil. The same questionnaire was distributed to them by the same team. Binary logistic regression was used to show the independent effect of each factor on the prevalence of violence. Results: Overall prevalence of violence (physical and/or sexual) in G2 (20.8%) was higher than that of G1 (18.8%). The prevalence of psychological violence was 40% in Erbil, which was significantly higher than the prevalence (24.8%) of Ankawa. The rates of physical and sexual violence were also higher in Erbil (18.4%, and 10.8% respectively) than rates of Ankawa (16.8% and 8% respectively). Factors found to be significantly associated with overall violence were: culture of Erbil, alcoholic husband, wife working as manual worker (compared with professionals), and having children. Conclusion: Violence against women is a serious public health issue. There was significant role of culture on the prevalence of violence. © 2012 Al-Tawil; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Altaei T.,Hawler Medical University
Experimental and Clinical Cardiology | Year: 2012

Background: An inflammatory response and systemic oxidative stress are directly caused by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), can also be stimulated. Reducing the release of proinflammatory cytokines plays an important role in limiting the postoperative inflammatory response. Silymarin has strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. Objective: To investigate the protective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of silymarin against the inflammation and oxidative stresss inherent to CABG surgery. Methods: Of the 102 patients undergoing elective first-time CABG surgery that were recruited, 50 (49.02%) received silymarin treatment and 52 (50.9%) were controls. Plasma cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) were measured preoperatively, 6 h and 24 h after CABG surgery. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were analyzed. Results: Postoperative cytokine levels in the silymarin group were significantly lower compared with preoperative levels, and were significantly lower compared with postoperative control group levels. The area under the curve for cytokines and CRP for the silymarin group were significantly lower compared with preoperative levels, and were significantly lower compared with postoperative control group levels. Postoperative levels of TEAC and MDA in the silymarin-treated group were significantly lower than in the control group. GSH levels were significantly elevated in the silymarin group compared with control. No side effects or mortality were associated with the use of silymarin. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of silymarin treatment provided protection against reperfusion injury and inflammation after CABG surgery. ©2012 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of diabetic foot infection with the patient's endogenous flora as the principal source. Nasal carriage of S. aureus has been identified as an important risk factor for the acquisition of diabetic foot infections. Objectives: The study assessment the associations of S. aureus with methicillin resistant S. aureus were isolation from diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage of the same patients and their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Methods: Diagnosis of S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus were carried out by using standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles were determent by breakpoint dilution method. Results: Out of 222 S. aureus isolation, 139 (62.61%) were isolated from the diabetic foot and 83 (37.39%) from the nasal carriage. Seventy one (30.87%) of the patients were S. aureus infection diabetic foot with nasal carriage. Among diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage patients, 40.85% of S. aureus were considered as methicillin resistant S. aureus. Rifampicin (96.40%) and Levofloxacin (91.44%) were active against S. aureus. Conclusion: Patients at strong risk for methicillin resistant S. aureus nasal carriage and subsequent diabetic foot infection with high resistance to antibiotics. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kareem T.,Hawler Medical University
World Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: There are different opinions about the treatment of umbilical pilonidal sinus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of conservative treatment of this disease. Methods: All patients with umbilical pilonidal sinus who attended our private surgical clinic in Erbil, Kurdistan, from January 1997 to August 2011, were treated by conservative treatment. Umbilectomy was performed for those who did not respond to the conservative treatment after three sessions. Results: A total of 134 patients were seen; 121 (90.3 %) were men. Only 105 (78.35 %) patients came back for the second visit. Eighty of them (76.19 %) responded to the treatment. The other 25 (23.8 %) patients were retreated by a second session of conservative treatment. Of these 25 patients, 19 (76 %) came back for the third visit and only three (15.78 %) patients did not respond to the treatment. One patient insisted on umbilectomy. The other two patients were treated but did not respond to the third session treatment. Umbilectomy was performed for them. Hair was found in the sinus after excision in these three patients. The follow-up period ranged from 9 months to 6.5 years for 46 (34.32 %) patients and revealed no recurrence. Conclusions: Conservative treatment should be regarded as the first choice and the main method of treatment in the management of umbilical pilonidal sinus. Improper extraction of hair is the main cause of failure of conservative treatment. Recurrence can be prevented by giving the patients instructions on preventive measures. © 2012 Société Internationale de Chirurgie.

Dezayee Z.M.I.,Hawler Medical University
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

Objectives: There is an association between viral infection and development of diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to investigate the role of rubella virus, cytomegalovirus and coxsackievirus in patients with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes mellitus in respect to the glycemic control and immune response presented by serum γ-interferon leveland antiviral antibodies. Materials and Methods: A total number of 160 (70 male and 90 female) T1D and 75 T2D (25 male and 50 female) patients allocated randomly from Martyr Layla Qasm center for diabetes mellitus in Erbil, Iraq, were enrolled in the study. Serum IgG antibody (I.U./mL) against rubella virus, cytomegalovirus coxsackievirus as well as serum interferon-g were determined. Results: Type-1 diabetic patients with positive anti-coxsakievirus antibody presented with significantly shorter duration of illness (4.822 ± 2.442 year) and poorer glycemic control (HbA1c %: 9.895 ± 1.272) This observation was not noticed with other viral infection as well as in T2D. Significant alterations in serum interferon-g (8.051 ± 13.371 pg/ml) were observed in T1D and related to coxasackievirus infection (13 patients had a level higher than 10.975 pg/ml; the upper limit of 95% C.I of control, and 34 had a level less than 4.457 pg/ml; the lower limit of 95% C.I of control). Conclusions: Subjects with type 1 diabetes and Coxsackie infections seem to have a different immunological and clinical profile. This needs further study.

Shabila N.P.,Hawler Medical University
World health & population | Year: 2012

With the limited availability of empirical and documented knowledge about the Iraqi primary healthcare (PHC) system, this study aimed to identify the main problems facing the Iraqi PHC system and the priorities for change. A qualitative study based on a self-administered questionnaire survey involving 46 primary care managers, public health professionals and academics was conducted in Erbil, Iraq. The questionnaire addressed participants' views on positive aspects, problems, priorities and barriers to change of the PHC system through seven open questions. The qualitative data analysis comprised thematic analysis. The survey revealed significant impediments to delivering PHC services, including problems in organization and management of the system, shortage of and poor quality of medications, and inadequate or uneven distribution of manpower and expertise. Priorities for improving the primary healthcare system included reorganization of the services and leadership involving adoption of family practice and regulation of public-private practice, placing emphasis on prevention and health education, and provision of continuing professional training and development. The enormous problems facing the system might signal the need for important and comprehensive improvements based on more in-depth assessment.

Jaff M.S.,Hawler Medical University
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2010

ABO blood groups and secretor status are important in clinical and forensic medicine and in relation to some diseases. There are geographic and racial differences in their frequencies, but the frequency of secretor status in different ABO blood group systems has not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was mainly to determine this point. Blood and saliva from 762 randomly selected apparently healthy adult individuals (480 men and 282 women) were examined to determine their ABO and Rhesus blood groups by standard conventional methods, and their secretor status by using Lewis blood grouping and/or hemagglutination inhibition test of saliva. Results showed that 76.1% of the study population were ABH blood group antigens secretors and 23.9% were nonsecretors. The frequencies of secretor status in different ABO blood groups were 70.1% in group A, 67.8% in group B, 67.9% in group AB, and 88.3% in group O. In conclusion, blood group O individuals have significantly higher frequency of secretor status than non-O blood group individuals. This finding would be beneficial to them, protecting them, at least partially, from certain malignancies or allowing them to have less aggressive disease, and this finding might be useful in enhancing further studies and research in this direction. © 2010 Jaff, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

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