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Hastings, New Zealand

Sandow M.J.,Royal Adelaide Hospital and Wakefield Orthopaedic Clinic | David H.,Derriford Hospital | Bentall S.J.,Hawkes Bay Hospital
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: We compared hemiarthroplasty (HA) and total shoulder replacement (TSR) for the treatment of osteoarthritis at minimum of 10 years from primary arthroplasty. Methods: Thirty-three patients (13 HA and 20 TSR) were intraoperatively randomized to HA or TSR after glenoid exposure and were assessed to a minimum of 10 years postoperatively. Apart from those who died, no patients were lost to follow-up. Results: At 6 months and 1 year, the TSR patients had less pain than the HA patients (P < .05), and this became more apparent at 2 years postoperatively (P < .02). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups at 10 years with respect to pain, function, and daily activities. No patients in the HA group rated their shoulders as pain-free at 10 years; however, 42% of the surviving TSR patients rated their shoulders as pain-free at 10 years. Four HA patients were revised to TSR due to severe pain secondary to glenoid erosion. Two shoulders in the TSR group have been revised. Nine of the 13 HA patients (69%) and 18 of the 20 TSR patients (90%) remained in situ at death or at the 10-year review. Conclusion: TSR has advantages over HA with respect to pain and function at 2 years, and there has notbeen a reversal of the outcomes on longer follow-up. This longer-term review does not support the contention that HA will avoid later TSR complications, and in particular, an unacceptable rate of glenoid component failure. © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Source


Hankey G.J.,University of Western Australia | Hankey G.J.,Stroke Unit | Ford A.H.,University of Western Australia | Yi Q.,National Epidemiology and Surveillance | And 12 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-: High plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) has been associated with cognitive impairment but lowering tHcy with B-vitamins has produced equivocal results. We aimed to determine whether B-vitamin supplementation would reduce tHcy and the incidence of new cognitive impairment among individuals with stroke or transient ischemic attack ≥6 months previously. METHODS-: A total of 8164 patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment with one tablet daily of B-vitamins (folic acid, 2 mg; vitamin B6, 25 mg; vitamin B12, 500 μg) or placebo and followed up for 3.4 years (median) in the VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke (VITATOPS) trial. For this prespecified secondary analysis of VITATOPS, the primary outcome was a new diagnosis of cognitive impairment, defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score <24 on ≥2 follow-up visits. Secondary outcomes were cognitive decline, and the mean tHcy and MMSE at final follow-up. RESULTS-: A total of 3089 participants (38%) voluntarily undertook the MMSE >6 months after the qualifying stroke; 2608 participants were cognitively unimpaired (MMSE ≥24), of whom 2214 participants (1110 B-vitamins versus 1104 placebo) had follow-up MMSEs during 2.8 years (median). At final follow-up, allocation to B-vitamins, compared with placebo, was associated with a reduction in mean tHcy (10.2 μmol/L versus 14.2 μmol/L; P<0.001) but no change from baseline in the mean MMSE score (-0.22 points versus-0.25 points; difference, 0.03; 95% confidence interval,-0.13 to 0.19; P=0.726) and no difference in the incidence of cognitive impairment (5.51% versus 5.47%; risk ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-1.48; P=0.976), cognitive decline (9.1% versus 10.3%; risk ratio, 0.89; 0.67-1.18; P=0.414), or cognitive impairment or decline (11.0% versus 11.3%; risk ratio, 0.98; 0.75-1.27; P=0.855). CONCLUSIONS-: Daily supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to a self-selected clinical trial cohort of cognitively unimpaired patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack lowered mean tHcy but had no effect on the incidence of cognitive impairment or cognitive decline, as measured by the MMSE, during a median of 2.8 years. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Hankey G.J.,Royal Perth Hospital | Eikelboom J.W.,McMaster University | Yi Q.,National Epidemiology and Surveillance | Lees K.R.,University of Glasgow | And 7 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2012

Background and Purpose-: To determine the effect of B vitamin treatment on the incidence of cancer among patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack. Methods-: A total of 8164 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment with 1 tablet daily of placebo or B vitamins (2 mg folic acid, 25 mg vitamin B6, 500 μg vitamin B12) and followed for a median of 3.4 years for any cancer as an adverse event. Results-: There was no significant difference in the incidence of any cancer among participants assigned B vitamins compared with placebo (4.04% versus 4.59%; risk ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.70-1.07) and no difference in cancer mortality (2.35% versus 2.09%; risk ratio, 1.09; 0.81-1.46). Among 1899 patients with diabetes, the incidence of cancer was higher among participants assigned B vitamins compared with placebo (5.35% versus 3.28%; adjusted risk ratio, 2.21; 1.31-3.73), whereas among 6168 patients without diabetes, the incidence of cancer was lower among participants assigned B vitamins compared with placebo (3.66% versus 5.03%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.67; 0.51-0.87; P for interaction=0.0001). Conclusions-: Daily administration of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to 8164 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack for a median of 3.4 years had no significant effect, compared with placebo, on cancer incidence or mortality. However, a post hoc subgroup analysis raises the hypothesis that folic acid treatment may increase the incidence of cancer among diabetics and reduce the incidence of cancer among nondiabetics with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Clinical Trial Registration-: URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00097669. URL: www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN74743444. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Gommans J.,Hawkes Bay Hospital | Yi Q.,National Epidemiology and Surveillance | Eikelboom J.W.,McMaster University | Hankey G.J.,University of Western Australia | And 2 more authors.
BMC Geriatrics | Year: 2013

Background: Homocysteine has been postulated as a novel, potentially reversible risk factor for osteoporosis and related fractures. We evaluated whether homocysteine-lowering therapy with B-vitamins in patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease reduced the incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Methods. VITAmins To Prevent Stroke (VITATOPS) was a prospective randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in which 8,164 patients with recent (within 7 months) stroke or transient ischemic attack were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment with one tablet daily of either placebo (n = 4,075) or B-vitamins (folic acid 2 mg, vitamin B6 25 mg, vitamin B12 500 μg; n = 4,089). Patients were reviewed every six months. Any osteoporotic fracture and osteoporotic hip fractures were secondary outcome events, and were reviewed by a masked adjudication committee. Analysis was by intention to treat. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of fracture. Results: Participants had a mean age of 62.6 years (SD 12.5 years) and 64% were male, 42% of Western European descent and 75% were functionally independent (Oxford Handicap Scale of two or less). After a median duration of 2.8 years therapy and 3.4 years follow-up, there was no significant difference in the incidence of any osteoporotic fracture between participants assigned B-vitamins (67 [1.64%]) and placebo (78 [1.91%]; risk ratio [RR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-1.18) or the incidence of hip fractures (34 [0.83%] B-vitamins vs. 36 [0.88%] placebo; RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.59-1.5). There was no significant impact of B-vitamin therapy on time to first fracture. Baseline homocysteine levels did not predict any osteoporotic fracture (p =0.43). Independent predictors of any osteoporotic fracture were female sex, age > 64 years, Western European ethnicity and use of anti-osteoporosis medication at randomization (all p < 0.01). Conclusions: Once daily treatment with B-vitamins had no effect on incidence of osteoporotic fractures during a median of 3.4 years follow-up in patients with cerebrovascular disease. A modest effect of B-vitamin therapy is not excluded due to the low numbers of fracture outcome events. Trial registration. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT00097669 and isrctn.org number: ISRCTN74743444. © 2013Gommans et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Jayathissa S.,Hutt Valley Hospital | Gommans J.,Hawkes Bay Hospital | Harper P.,MidCentral Health
Internal Medicine Journal | Year: 2013

Stroke thrombolysis is becoming a common practice in Australian and New Zealand hospitals. There are no established guidelines for thrombolysis of patients who are taking dabigatran, and accurate medication reconciliation may not be possible. Patients with normal activated partial thromboplastin time are unlikely to have clinically significant dabigatran concentration in the blood. For safest outcomes, we suggest incorporating thrombin time assay for acute stroke patients suspected to be taking dabigatran. © 2013 The Authors Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians. Source

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