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Schafer A.,HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts | Schafer A.,Curtin University Australia | Hall T.,Curtin University Australia | Muller G.,Ruckenzentrum Am Michel | Briffa K.,Curtin University Australia
European Spine Journal

The objective is to determine if pain and disability outcomes of patients treated with neural mobilisation differ for sub-classifications of low back and leg pain (LB&LP). Radiating leg pain is a poor prognostic factor for recovery in patients with LBP. To improve outcome, a new pathomechanism-based classification system was proposed: neuropathic sensitization (NS), denervation (D), peripheral nerve sensitization (PNS) and musculoskeletal (M). Seventy-seven patients with unilateral LB&LP were recruited. Following classification, all subjects were treated seven times with neural mobilisation techniques. A successful outcome was defined as achieving a minimal clinically important change in pain intensity (11-point numerical rating scale), physical function (Roland Morris disability questionnaire) and global perceived change (7-point Likert scale: from 1 = "completely recovered" to 7 = "worse than ever"). The proportion of responders was significantly greater in PNS (55.6%) than the other three groups (NS 10%; D 14.3% and M10%). After adjusting for baseline differences, mean magnitude of improvement of the outcome measures were significantly greater in PNS compared to the other groups. Patients classified as PNS have a more favourable prognosis following neural mobilisation compared to the other groups. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source

Klarhofer L.,Clausthal University of Technology | Viol W.,Laser Laboratorium Gottingen E.V. | Viol W.,HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts | Maus-Friedrichs W.,Clausthal University of Technology

Cellobiose and lignin were plasma treated in synthetic air and argon using a dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. Changes due to the plasma modification of the surfaces were studied by the techniques of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and metastable impact electron spectroscopy. The combination of these techniques makes it possible to distinguish between hydroxyl and carbonyl groups at the surface, on the one hand, and conjugated and non-conjugated carbon bonds, on the other hand. This type of differentiation would not be easily possible based on XPS alone, even at very high resolution. The plasma treatment in oxygen containing atmospheres oxidizes the lignin surface by the generation of hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl groups and reduces cellulose surfaces by the degradation of hydroxyl groups and the formation of double bonds between carbon and oxygen. The plasma treatment in argon leads to the reduction of both lignin and cellulose by the formation of double bonds under degradation of hydroxyl groups. Copyright © by Walter de Gruyter. Source

Inventory data of six urban tree species from seven cities across Germany were used to model regional variation of height growth, allometric scaling, and slenderness over a wide range of size and age using a quantile regression approach. Variation within and between species and cities was large. Height did not reach an asymptote but declined at higher ages, presumably because of reduction cuts. Allometric scaling and slenderness varied with wind climate, modulus of elasticity, and coefficient of drag. Our data do not support the use of a threshold value of slenderness in tree risk assessment. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Einfeld D.,Lund University | Plesko M.,Cosylab | Schaper J.,HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation

By the beginning of 1990, three third-generation synchrotron light sources had been successfully commissioned in Grenoble, Berkeley and Trieste (ESRF, ALS and ELETTRA). Each of these new machines reached their target specifications without any significant problems. In parallel, already at that time discussions were underway regarding the next generation, the 'diffraction-limited light source (DLSR)', which featured sub-nmrad electron beam emittance, photon beam brilliance exceeding 10 22 and the potential to emit coherent radiation. Also, at about that time, a first design for a 3GeV DLSR was developed, based on a modified multiple-bend achromat (MBA) design leading to a lattice with normalized emittance of x = 0.5nmrad. The novel feature of the MBA lattice was the use of seven vertically focusing bend magnets with different bending angles throughout the achromat cell to keep the radiation integrals and resulting beam emittance low. The baseline design called for a 400m ring circumference with 12 straight sections of 6m length. The dynamic aperture behaviour of the DLSR lattice was estimated to produce >5h beam lifetime at 100mA stored beam current. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography. Source

Hahn H.,Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology | Ganagin W.,HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts | Hartmann K.,University of Applied Sciences Aschaffenburg | Wachendorf M.,University of Kassel
Bioresource Technology

With the share of intermittent renewable energies within the electricity system rising, balancing services from dispatchable power plants are of increasing importance. Highlighting the importance of the need to keeping fuel costs for flexible power generation to a minimum, the study aims to identify favourable biogas plant configurations, supplying biogas on demand. A cost analysis of five configurations based on biogas storing and flexible biogas production concepts has been carried out. Results show that additional flexibility costs for a biogas supply of 8h per day range between 2€ and 11€MWh-1 and for a 72h period without biogas demand from 9€ to 19€MWh-1. While biogas storage concepts were identified as favourable short term supply configurations, flexible biogas production concepts profit from reduced storage requirements at plants with large biogas production capacities or for periods of several hours without biogas demand. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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