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Hawassa, Ethiopia

Hawassa University is a public university in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region of Ethiopia established as a body of Debub University on 22 December 1999. The main Campus and several Faculties located in Hawassa city, 270 km south of the capital Addis Ababa. Wikipedia.

Background: The discovery of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, with a novel mechanism independent of insulin secretion or sensitization, bring about a new therapeutic approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors at different doses in randomized double blind clinical trials.Methods: This meta-analysis was conducted by including randomized double-blind controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes irrespective of their antidiabetic drug exposure history but with an inadequate glycemic control. All the effect sizes were computed using the random effects model. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and odds ratios (OR) were computed for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Additional analyses like sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and meta-regression were also performed.Results: The pooled analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in mean changes in Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (SMD = -0.78%, 95% CI, -0.87 to -0.69), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (SMD = -0.70 mg/dl, 95% CI, -0.79 to -0.61), body weight (overall SMD = -0.59 kg, 95% CI, -0.65 to -0.52) and blood pressure from baseline with SGLT2 inhibitors based therapy. Consistently a significant number of patients treated with SGLT2 inhibitors achieved HbA1c < 7% (OR = 2.09, 95% CI, 1.77 to 2.46). SGLT2 inhibitors based therapy was associated with adverse events like genital and urinary tract infections.Conclusion: All studied doses of SGLT2 inhibitors, either as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents, consistently improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, a small percentage of patients suffer from genital and urinary tract infections. © 2013 Berhan and Barker; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the efficacy, safety and tolerability of tofacitinib in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with an inadequate response or intolerance to at least one of the nonbiologic or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Electronic based literature search was conducted in the databases of HINARI (Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative), MEDLINE and Cochrane library. The studies included in the meta-analysis were double-blind randomized clinical trials that were conducted in treatment-refractory or intolerant patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The odds ratios (OR), standardized mean differences (SMD) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined by using the random effects model. Heterogeneity among the included studies was evaluated by I2 statistics. The odds of tofacitinib treated patients who met the criteria for an at least a 20% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology scale (ACR 20) was more than 4 times higher than placebo treated patients (overall OR = 4.15; 95% CI, 3.23 to 5.32). Even though the discontinuation rate due to adverse events was not different from placebo groups, tofacitinib was associated with infections (overall SMD = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.428 to 2.676), reduction in neutrophil counts (overall SMD = -0.34, 95% CI = -0.450 to -0.223) and elevated levels of LDL cholesterol and liver enzymes. Tofacitinib was effective in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis in patients with an inadequate response or intolerance to at least one DMARDs. However, treatment with tofacitinib was associated with infections and laboratory abnormalities.

Regassa N.,Hawassa University
African Health Sciences | Year: 2011

Background: Access to antenatal care (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC) services has a great deal of impacts on major causes of infant death and significantly affects trends of mortality in a population. Antenatal care may play an indirect role in reducing maternal mortality by encouraging women to deliver with assistance of a skilled birth attendant or in a health facility. In most rural settings of Ethiopia, there are challenges in increasing such health care service utilization mainly due to the fact that the decisions that lead women to use the services seem to occur within the context of their marriage, household and family setting. Objective: Examining the prevalence and factors associated with antenatal Care (ANC) and Postnatal Care (PNC) service utilizations. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population based study undertaken in 10 rural villages of the Sidama zone, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected from a representative sample of 1,094 households drawn from the study population using a combination of simple random and multistage sampling techniques. Two dependent variables were used in the analysis: The ANC, measured by whether a woman got the service (at least once) from a health professional or not during her last pregnancy and PNC which was approximated by whether the last born child completed the required immunization or not. Household and women's characteristics were used as explanatory variables for both dependent variables. Results: The study revealed that the level of ANC and PNC service utilizations is 77.4 % and 37.2% respectively. The predicted probabilities, using logistic regression, showed that women who are literate, have exposure to media, and women with low parity are more likely to use both ANC and PNC services. Conclusion: Antenatal care service utilization was generally good while the postnatal care given to new born children was very low compared to other population groups in the region. Promoting women's education and behavioral change communication at grass root level, provision of the services at both home and health facilities, and improving the quality and capacity of the health providers are some of the recommendations forwarded.

Biazin B.,Hawassa University | Sterk G.,University Utrecht
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2013

The Ethiopian Rift Valley is a dry land zone where for a long time pastoral communities have made their living from acacia-based woodlands. But many pastoralists have changed from a pastoral way of life to mixed farming over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate land-use and land cover (LULC) changes in the Central Rift Valley dry lands of Ethiopia, and determine the role of drought vulnerability as a driver. A combination of GIS/remote sensing techniques, drought vulnerability analyses, field observation and surveying were employed. Because drought vulnerability is linked more closely to the types of land-uses and social contexts rather than only climatological events, it was examined based on locally perceived criteria of drought. Accordingly, the pastoral way of life was vulnerable to severe drought during 25% of the last 28. years while the mixed farming (livestock and maize farming combined) system was vulnerable to severe drought only during 4% of the years. Over the last 5 decades, cultivated lands increased to threefold while the dense acacia coverage declined from 42% in 1965 to 9% in 2010. The observed LULC changes were driven by the interplay of recurrent drought, socioeconomic and institutional dynamics, access to markets and improved technologies such as early-maturing maize cultivars and better land management. Proper policy and technological interventions are required to develop appropriate drought adaptation strategies and avert the increasing degradation of woodlands in the Rift Valley dry lands where a pastoral way of life is still present. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Background: Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal compound that has recently been approved by the FDA for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). It is a selective serotonin (5-HT) 3A and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and inhibitor of serotonin transporters. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine in adults with MDD.Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and HINARI. The meta-analysis was conducted by including randomized controlled trials that assessed the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine in adult patients with MDD. Using the random effects model, which assumes individual studies are estimating different treatment effects, the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine was determined by weighted mean differences (WMDs) and odds ratios (ORs). The findings were considered as statistically significant when the 95% CI of WMDs and ORs did not include 0 and 1, respectively. Heterogeneity testing, meta-regression and sensitivity analysis were also performed.Results: During the initial literature search about 151 publications were identified. Based on the predetermined inclusion criteria, 7 randomized controlled trials were included. The pooled analysis demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score from baseline among patients who were on vortioxetine (WMD = -3.92; 95% CI, -5.258 to -2.581). Furthermore, a statistically significant number of patients with MDD who were on vortioxetine have achieved a greater than or equal to 50% reduction in depression symptoms from baseline. However, a significant number of patients who were on vortioxetine therapy reported more adverse events than patients who were on placebo (overall OR = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.38).Conclusions: Therapy with vortioxetine was significantly associated with reduction in depression symptoms from baseline compared to placebo. Nevertheless, a significant number of patients who were on vortioxetine therapy have reported more adverse events. © 2014 Berhan and Barker; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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