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Kaneohe, HI, United States

Hawaiʻi Pacific University, also known as HPU, is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university located in Honolulu and Kaneohe, in the U.S. state of Hawaii.Hawaiʻi Pacific University is the largest private university in the central Pacific, most noted for its diverse student body of nearly 7,000 students, representing nearly 80 countries. The school's largest academic programs are in Business Administration, Nursing, Psychology, and International Studies.Hawaiʻi Pacific University has two main campuses in addition to an Oceanic Institute and Military programs. HPU's downtown Honolulu campus serves most of the business, liberal arts, and other general programs; while the Hawaiʻi Loa campus on the windward side of the Koʻolau Range houses the majority of the science programs. Wikipedia.

Ainley D.G.,983 University Avenue | David Hyrenbach K.,Hawaii Pacific University
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2010

To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the California current system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (May-June) upwelling season over 22 yr (1985-2006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most extreme in diving species with higher energy expenditure during foraging. We related variation in individual species abundance (number km-2) to seasonally lagged (late winter, early spring, late spring) and concurrent ocean conditions, and to long-term trends (using a proxy variable: year) during a multi-decadal period of major fluctuations in the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). We considered both remote (Multivariate ENSO Index, PDO) and local (coastal upwelling indices and sea-surface temperature) environmental variables as proxies for ocean productivity and prey availability. We also related seabird trends to those of potentially major trophic competitors, humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and blue (Balaenoptera musculus) whales, which increased in number 4-5-fold midway during our study. Cyclical oscillations in seabird abundance were apparent in the black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), and decreasing trends were documented for ashy storm-petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columbus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and western gull (Larus occidentalis); the sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus), exhibited a marked decline before signs of recovery at the end of the study period. The abundance of nine other focal species varied with ocean conditions, but without decadal or long-term trends. Six of these species have the largest global populations in the CCS, and four are highly energetic, diving foragers. Furthermore, three of the diving species trends were negatively correlated with the abundance of humpback whales in the study area, a direct competitor for the same prey. Therefore, on the basis of literature reviewed, we hypothesize that the seabirds were affected by the decreasing carrying capacity of the CCS, over-exploitation of some prey stocks and interference competition from the previously exploited, but now increasing, baleen whale populations. Overall, our study highlights the complexity of the ecological factors driving seabird population trends in the highly variable and rapidly changing CCS ecosystem. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Dye S.T.,Hawaii Pacific University | Dye S.T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Reviews of Geophysics | Year: 2012

[1] Chemical and physical Earth models agree little as to the radioactive power of the planet. Each predicts a range of radioactive powers, overlapping slightly with the other at about 24 TW, and together spanning 14-46 TW. Approximately 20% of this radioactive power (3-8 TW) escapes to space in the form of geoneutrinos. The remaining 11-38 TW heats the planet with significant geodynamical consequences, appearing as the radiogenic component of the 43-49 TW surface heat flow. The nonradiogenic component of the surface heat flow (5-38 TW) is presumably primordial, a legacy of the formation and early evolution of the planet. A constraining measurement of radiogenic heating provides insights to the thermal history of the Earth and potentially discriminates chemical and physical Earth models. Radiogenic heating in the planet primarily springs from unstable nuclides of uranium, thorium, and potassium. The paths to their stable daughter nuclides include nuclear beta decays, producing geoneutrinos. Large subsurface detectors efficiently record the energy but not the direction of the infrequent interactions of the highest-energy geoneutrinos, originating only from uranium and thorium. The measured energy spectrum of the interactions estimates the relative amounts of these heatproducing elements, while the intensity estimates planetary radiogenic power. Recent geoneutrino observations in Japan and Italy find consistent values of radiogenic heating. The combined result mildly excludes the lowest model values of radiogenic heating and, assuming whole mantle convection, identifies primordial heat loss. Future observations have the potential to measure radiogenic heating with better precision, further constraining geological models and the thermal evolution of the Earth. This review presents the science and status of geoneutrino observations and the prospects for measuring the radioactive power of the planet. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Dye S.T.,Hawaii Pacific University | Dye S.T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2010

The terrestrial distribution of U, Th, and K abundances governs the thermal evolution, traces the differentiation, and reflects the bulk composition of the earth. Comparing the bulk earth composition to chondritic meteorites estimates the net amounts of these radiogenic heat-producing elements available for partitioning to the crust, mantle, and core. Core formation enriches the abundances of refractory lithophile elements, including U and Th, in the silicate earth by ~1.5. Global removal of volatile elements potentially increases this enrichment to ~2.8. The K content of the silicate earth follows from the ratio of K to U. Variable enrichment produces a range of possible heat-producing element abundances in the silicate earth. A model assesses the essentially fixed amounts of U, Th, and K in the approximately closed crust reservoir. Subtracting these sequestered crustal amounts of U, Th, and K from the variable amounts in the silicate earth results in a range of possible mantle allocations, leaving global dynamics and thermal evolution poorly constrained. Terrestrial antineutrinos from β-emitting daughter nuclei in the U and Th decay series traverse the earth with negligible attenuation. The rate at which large subsurface instruments observe these geo-neutrinos depends on the distribution of U and Th relative to the detector. Geo-neutrino observations with sensitivity to U and Th in the mantle are able to estimate silicate earth enrichment, leading to a more complete understanding of the origin, accretion, differentiation, and thermal history of the planet. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mau M.K.,Hawaii Pacific University
Progress in community health partnerships : research, education, and action | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Native Hawaiians (NH) and Other Pacific Islanders (OPI) bear an excess burden of diabetes health disparities. Translation of empirically tested interventions such as the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention (DPP-LI) offers the potential for reversing these trends. Yet, little is known about how best to translate efficacious interventions into public health practice, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach that engages the community in the research process and has recently been proposed as a means to improve the translation of research into community practice. OBJECTIVES: To address diabetes health disparities in NHOPIs, CBPR approaches were used to: (1) culturally adapt the DPP-LI for NHOPI communities; and (2) implement and examine the effectiveness of the culturally-adapted program to promote weight loss in 5 NHOPI communities. METHODS: Informant interviews (n=15) and focus groups (n=15, with 112 NHOPI participants) were completed to inform the cultural adaptation of the DPP-LI program. A team of 5 community investigators and 1 academic research team collaboratively developed and implemented the 12-week pilot study to assess the effectiveness of the culturally adapted program. RESULTS: A total of 127 NHOPIs participated in focus groups and informant interviews that resulted in the creation of a significantly modified version of the DPP-LI, entitled the PILI 'Ohana Lifestyle Intervention (POLI). In the pilot study, 239 NHOPIs were enrolled and after 12 weeks (post-program), mean weight loss was -1.5 kg (95%CI -2.0, -1.0) with 26% of participants losing > or = 3% of their baseline weight. Mean weight loss among participants who completed all 8 lessons at 12 weeks was significantly higher (-1.8 kg, 95%CI -2.3, -1.3) than participants who completed less than 8 lessons (-0.70 kg, 95%CI -1.1, -0.29). CONCLUSION: A fully engaged CBPR approach was successful in translating an evidence based diabetes prevention program into a culturally relevant intervention for NHOPI communities. This pilot study demonstrates that weight loss in high risk minority populations can be achieved over a short period of time using CBPR approaches. Source

The endemic Hawaiian gastropod Smaragdia bryanae is a specialized marine herbivore that uses the endemic seagrass Halophila hawaiiana as both food and habitat. These small neritids, their grazing scars, and their egg capsules are found year-round on seagrass leaves, where they feed on protoplast contents released as the sharp outer-lateral teeth of the snail's radula puncture leaf epidermal cells; the contents of these cells are likely swept into the mouth by the long, wispy cusps of the marginal teeth. Structural differences from the typical neritid radula include elongated outer-lateral teeth with two sharply pointed cusps, delicate marginal teeth reduced in both size and number, and a compressed central section. Snails grazed on leaves of H. hawaiiana steadily in laboratory culture, and grew and reproduced on this diet. In laboratory choice experiments, snails did not graze the thalli of any of six macroalgal species growing near seagrass where snails were collected, and strongly preferred occupying seagrass. Seagrass samples from five field sites on Oahu and one on Maui showed from 30% to 94% of leaves damaged, with 11% of the total leaf standing area grazed. Snails are smaller (mean length 2.74±0.32mm, mean width 2.15±0.17mm, n=217) than the width of the leaves of H. hawaiiana (mean 3.24±1.26mm, n=790). The snails associate constantly with their host, despite the scattered distribution, small patch size, and variability of the seagrass resource, demonstrated by a sevenfold range in the leaf area index (mean 1.11±0.61cm2 blade surfacecm-2, n=31) among samples. Damage on grazed leaves (mean 8.21±7.05mm2 per leaf, or 16.5% of leaf surface, n=511) is concentrated in the apical and central epithelia between the midrib and the marginal veins, where snails may access cells with thinner walls and few fibers. Details of the grazing interaction between these extant species in Hawai'i shed light on the ecological specialization of members of the genus Smaragdia to seagrasses over geological time. © 2011, The American Microscopical Society, Inc. Source

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