Kaneohe, HI, United States
Kaneohe, HI, United States

Hawaiʻi Pacific University, also known as HPU, is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university located in Honolulu and Kaneohe, in the U.S. state of Hawaii.Hawaiʻi Pacific University is the largest private university in the central Pacific, most noted for its diverse student body of nearly 7,000 students, representing nearly 80 countries. The school's largest academic programs are in Business Administration, Nursing, Psychology, and International Studies.Hawaiʻi Pacific University has two main campuses in addition to an Oceanic Institute and Military programs. HPU's downtown Honolulu campus serves most of the business, liberal arts, and other general programs; while the Hawaiʻi Loa campus on the windward side of the Koʻolau Range houses the majority of the science programs. Wikipedia.

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Ainley D.G.,983 University Avenue | David Hyrenbach K.,Hawaii Pacific University
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2010

To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the California current system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (May-June) upwelling season over 22 yr (1985-2006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most extreme in diving species with higher energy expenditure during foraging. We related variation in individual species abundance (number km-2) to seasonally lagged (late winter, early spring, late spring) and concurrent ocean conditions, and to long-term trends (using a proxy variable: year) during a multi-decadal period of major fluctuations in the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). We considered both remote (Multivariate ENSO Index, PDO) and local (coastal upwelling indices and sea-surface temperature) environmental variables as proxies for ocean productivity and prey availability. We also related seabird trends to those of potentially major trophic competitors, humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and blue (Balaenoptera musculus) whales, which increased in number 4-5-fold midway during our study. Cyclical oscillations in seabird abundance were apparent in the black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), and decreasing trends were documented for ashy storm-petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columbus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and western gull (Larus occidentalis); the sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus), exhibited a marked decline before signs of recovery at the end of the study period. The abundance of nine other focal species varied with ocean conditions, but without decadal or long-term trends. Six of these species have the largest global populations in the CCS, and four are highly energetic, diving foragers. Furthermore, three of the diving species trends were negatively correlated with the abundance of humpback whales in the study area, a direct competitor for the same prey. Therefore, on the basis of literature reviewed, we hypothesize that the seabirds were affected by the decreasing carrying capacity of the CCS, over-exploitation of some prey stocks and interference competition from the previously exploited, but now increasing, baleen whale populations. Overall, our study highlights the complexity of the ecological factors driving seabird population trends in the highly variable and rapidly changing CCS ecosystem. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dye S.T.,Hawaii Pacific University | Dye S.T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Reviews of Geophysics | Year: 2012

[1] Chemical and physical Earth models agree little as to the radioactive power of the planet. Each predicts a range of radioactive powers, overlapping slightly with the other at about 24 TW, and together spanning 14-46 TW. Approximately 20% of this radioactive power (3-8 TW) escapes to space in the form of geoneutrinos. The remaining 11-38 TW heats the planet with significant geodynamical consequences, appearing as the radiogenic component of the 43-49 TW surface heat flow. The nonradiogenic component of the surface heat flow (5-38 TW) is presumably primordial, a legacy of the formation and early evolution of the planet. A constraining measurement of radiogenic heating provides insights to the thermal history of the Earth and potentially discriminates chemical and physical Earth models. Radiogenic heating in the planet primarily springs from unstable nuclides of uranium, thorium, and potassium. The paths to their stable daughter nuclides include nuclear beta decays, producing geoneutrinos. Large subsurface detectors efficiently record the energy but not the direction of the infrequent interactions of the highest-energy geoneutrinos, originating only from uranium and thorium. The measured energy spectrum of the interactions estimates the relative amounts of these heatproducing elements, while the intensity estimates planetary radiogenic power. Recent geoneutrino observations in Japan and Italy find consistent values of radiogenic heating. The combined result mildly excludes the lowest model values of radiogenic heating and, assuming whole mantle convection, identifies primordial heat loss. Future observations have the potential to measure radiogenic heating with better precision, further constraining geological models and the thermal evolution of the Earth. This review presents the science and status of geoneutrino observations and the prospects for measuring the radioactive power of the planet. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Mau M.K.,Hawaii Pacific University
Progress in community health partnerships : research, education, and action | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Native Hawaiians (NH) and Other Pacific Islanders (OPI) bear an excess burden of diabetes health disparities. Translation of empirically tested interventions such as the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention (DPP-LI) offers the potential for reversing these trends. Yet, little is known about how best to translate efficacious interventions into public health practice, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach that engages the community in the research process and has recently been proposed as a means to improve the translation of research into community practice. OBJECTIVES: To address diabetes health disparities in NHOPIs, CBPR approaches were used to: (1) culturally adapt the DPP-LI for NHOPI communities; and (2) implement and examine the effectiveness of the culturally-adapted program to promote weight loss in 5 NHOPI communities. METHODS: Informant interviews (n=15) and focus groups (n=15, with 112 NHOPI participants) were completed to inform the cultural adaptation of the DPP-LI program. A team of 5 community investigators and 1 academic research team collaboratively developed and implemented the 12-week pilot study to assess the effectiveness of the culturally adapted program. RESULTS: A total of 127 NHOPIs participated in focus groups and informant interviews that resulted in the creation of a significantly modified version of the DPP-LI, entitled the PILI 'Ohana Lifestyle Intervention (POLI). In the pilot study, 239 NHOPIs were enrolled and after 12 weeks (post-program), mean weight loss was -1.5 kg (95%CI -2.0, -1.0) with 26% of participants losing > or = 3% of their baseline weight. Mean weight loss among participants who completed all 8 lessons at 12 weeks was significantly higher (-1.8 kg, 95%CI -2.3, -1.3) than participants who completed less than 8 lessons (-0.70 kg, 95%CI -1.1, -0.29). CONCLUSION: A fully engaged CBPR approach was successful in translating an evidence based diabetes prevention program into a culturally relevant intervention for NHOPI communities. This pilot study demonstrates that weight loss in high risk minority populations can be achieved over a short period of time using CBPR approaches.

Horowitz L.S.,Hawaii Pacific University
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2015

This paper expands our understandings of corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a form of roll-out neoliberalism, building on analyses of CSR initiatives as elements of a capitalist system actively working to create its own social regularisation - to secure a socio-politico-economic context supporting capitalist development. Using an ethnographic analysis of the rise and fall of an indigenous protest group that targeted a multinational mining project in New Caledonia, this paper has two theoretical aims. First, it builds on literature that analyses neoliberalism as 'articulating' with particular politico-economic conditions in order to argue that such articulation is also, necessarily, cultural. I describe how the mining company undercut and ultimately co-opted local resistance, largely by successfully capturing culturally-based ideologies of customary and indigenous legitimacy. Thus, neoliberalisation's articulations may involve attempts to capture not only formal but also informal regulation or regulators, through direct personal benefits and also indirectly through the capture of culturally valued ideologies. These ideologies, in turn, are caught up in culturally grounded hegemonic processes. This leads to the paper's second theoretical aim, which is to explore what happens when different forms of hegemony, based in distinct cultural formations, encounter each other as well as counter-hegemonic forces. In engaging directly with customary authorities rather than exclusively with activists, the company re-legitimised itself by delegitimising its activist opponents, repositioning them as subordinates within their own culturally informed social hierarchy, and reinstating customary authorities' privileged hegemonic status. Thus, multiple, culturally distinct hegemonic processes may co-exist and interact; here, they reinforced each other by suppressing counter-hegemonic activities. However, some customary authorities still sympathised with the protestors' aims and perceived potential threats from the company's expanding economic power. I end by suggesting that counter-hegemonic possibilities reside in the perpetual dynamism of cultures. © 2014 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).

The endemic Hawaiian gastropod Smaragdia bryanae is a specialized marine herbivore that uses the endemic seagrass Halophila hawaiiana as both food and habitat. These small neritids, their grazing scars, and their egg capsules are found year-round on seagrass leaves, where they feed on protoplast contents released as the sharp outer-lateral teeth of the snail's radula puncture leaf epidermal cells; the contents of these cells are likely swept into the mouth by the long, wispy cusps of the marginal teeth. Structural differences from the typical neritid radula include elongated outer-lateral teeth with two sharply pointed cusps, delicate marginal teeth reduced in both size and number, and a compressed central section. Snails grazed on leaves of H. hawaiiana steadily in laboratory culture, and grew and reproduced on this diet. In laboratory choice experiments, snails did not graze the thalli of any of six macroalgal species growing near seagrass where snails were collected, and strongly preferred occupying seagrass. Seagrass samples from five field sites on Oahu and one on Maui showed from 30% to 94% of leaves damaged, with 11% of the total leaf standing area grazed. Snails are smaller (mean length 2.74±0.32mm, mean width 2.15±0.17mm, n=217) than the width of the leaves of H. hawaiiana (mean 3.24±1.26mm, n=790). The snails associate constantly with their host, despite the scattered distribution, small patch size, and variability of the seagrass resource, demonstrated by a sevenfold range in the leaf area index (mean 1.11±0.61cm2 blade surfacecm-2, n=31) among samples. Damage on grazed leaves (mean 8.21±7.05mm2 per leaf, or 16.5% of leaf surface, n=511) is concentrated in the apical and central epithelia between the midrib and the marginal veins, where snails may access cells with thinner walls and few fibers. Details of the grazing interaction between these extant species in Hawai'i shed light on the ecological specialization of members of the genus Smaragdia to seagrasses over geological time. © 2011, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.

Gilman E.L.,Hawaii Pacific University
Marine Policy | Year: 2011

Overexploitation of bycatch and target species in marine capture fisheries is the most widespread and direct driver of change and loss of global marine biodiversity. Bycatch in purse seine and pelagic longline tuna fisheries, the two primary gear types for catching tunas, is a primary mortality source of some populations of seabirds, sea turtles, marine mammals and sharks. Bycatch of juvenile tunas and unmarketable species and sizes of other fish in purse seine fisheries, and juvenile swordfish in longline fisheries, contributes to the overexploitation of some stocks, and is an allocation issue. There has been substantial progress in identifying gear technology solutions to seabird and sea turtle bycatch on longlines and to direct dolphin mortality in purse seines. Given sufficient investment, gear technology solutions are probably feasible for the remaining bycatch problems. More comprehensive consideration across species groups is needed to identify conflicts as well as mutual benefits from mitigation methods. Fishery-specific bycatch assessments are necessary to determine the efficacy, economic viability, practicality and safety of alternative mitigation methods. While support for gear technology research and development has generally been strong, political will to achieve broad uptake of best practices has been lacking. The five Regional Fisheries Management Organizations have achieved mixed progress mitigating bycatch. Large gaps remain in both knowledge of ecological risks and governance of bycatch. Most binding conservation and management measures fall short of gear technology best practice. A lack of performance standards, in combination with an inadequate observer coverage for all but large Pacific purse seiners, and incomplete data collection, hinders assessing measures' efficacy. Compliance is probably low due to inadequate surveillance and enforcement. Illegal, unreported and unregulated tuna fishing hampers governance efforts. Replacing consensus-based decision-making and eliminating opt-out provisions would help. Instituting rights-based management measures could elicit improved bycatch mitigation practices. While gradual improvements in an international governance of bycatch can be expected, market-based mechanisms, including retailers and their suppliers working with fisheries to gradually improve practices and governance, promise to be expeditious and effective. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Potemra J.T.,Hawaii Pacific University
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2012

This paper describes different numerical models of ocean circulation the output of which can be applied to study patterns and pathways of drifting marine debris. The paper focuses on model output that is readily available rather than on numerical models that could be configured and run locally. These include operational models from the US Navy (the Navy Layered Ocean Model (NLOM), Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)), data assimilating reanalysis models (the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) models), and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ocean reanalysis (Ocean Reanalysis System, ECMWF/ORA-S3). The paper describes the underlying physics in each model system, limitations, and where to obtain the model output. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY | Award Amount: 28.11K | Year: 2012

Evidence increasingly demonstrates that selective removal of marine life can induce restructuring of marine food webs. Trophic structure is the central component of mass balance models, widely used tools to evaluate fisheries in an ecosystem context. Food web structure is commonly determined by stomach contents or by bulk tissue stable isotope analyses, both of which are limited in terms of resolution and versatility. The investigators will refine a tool, Amino Acid Compound-Specific Isotopic Analyses (AA-CSIA), which can be broadly applicable for quantifying the time-integrated trophic position (TP) of consumers. Differences in source and trophic nitrogen isotopic composition for specific amino acids will provide an unambiguous and integrated measure of fractional trophic TP across multiple phyla, regardless of an animals physiological condition or of the biogeochemical cycling at the base of the food web. AA-CSIA will allow testing of the efficacy of trophic position estimates derived from ecosystem-based models and promote the evolution of these models into decision-support tools. This project has three goals: 1. To validate the application of AA-CSIA across multiple marine phyla under differing physiological conditions. 2. To compare the application of AA-CSIA across systems with contrasting biogeochemical cycling regimes. 3. To develop the use of AA-CSIA TP estimates for validating trophic models of exploited ecosystems. The investigators will test and refine the approach using a combination of laboratory feeding experiments and field studies across regions with differing biogeochemical cycling regimes. They will determine the applicability of the AA-CSIA approach in a variety of marine organisms assessed in controlled studies. Subsequently, ecosystem components will be sampled from the eastern tropical Pacific, coastal California and the subtropical Pacific gyre. They will also test the effects of sample preservation on the isotopic composition of individual AA to determine whether the approach can be used on archived samples. This tool will allow testing of the efficacy of ecosystem-based models currently used to gain insight into the ecological effects of fisheries removals and improve the reliability of future models required to manage marine resources. In addition to the goal of developing AA-CSIA for use as a TP indicator, the information obtained through this project will provide important species-specific biological data on the feeding behavior of marine organisms that could have implications for their resilience to anthropogenic pressures and climate change.

This project will have direct application to evaluating ecosystem effects of fisheries by providing an unbiased, integrated and independent approach to
estimating trophic structure, and a method by which to validate existing ecosystem-based model outputs and predictions. In addition, the project will have outreach benefits through the involvement of graduate and undergraduate students, and exposure of younger students through K-12 programs. This research will contribute to the greater understanding of the biology of locally important fish species as well as globally important shrimp and endangered marine turtles.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 35.14K | Year: 2011

The investigators will identify the abundance and distribution of thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in the continental crust and underlying mantle beneath a 1000-km wide area in southern Canada - northern central US where there will be an underground laboratory constructed to measure the flux of geoneutrinos from inside the Earth. Geoneutrinos are electron antineutrinos produced inside the Earth during beta-decays of naturally occurring radioactive elements. These particles are messengers of the abundances and distribution of radioactive elements within our planet, and provide direct information that constrains all geochemical and geophysical models of the planet. Geoneutrino detection was successfully performed by two sub-kiloton, liquid scintillator detectors. The SNO+ detector (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada), a kiloton detector, will be the first liquid scintillation neutrino detector with ample fiducial volume and low enough reactor background to allow detection of sufficient geoneutrino counts in approximately 3 years to constrain the Th and U content of the Earth to within ~±25% (1 sigma) or better. All of these detectors are also capable of detecting the electron antineutrino emissions of power nuclear reactors.

By constraining the Earths nuclear power to uncertainties of about 12% for the regional continental crust the investigators will be able to assess critically the Th and U content of the mantle. Their goals are to test interpretive compositional Earth models against real time neutrino data. The integration of these two independent data sets will provide transformative insights into how the Earth works and constrain the energy source driving Plate Tectonics. In turn, these data will provide unique bulk compositional information about the crust and mantle.

The team will unite scientists from earth sciences and physics with shared goals in antineutrino detection research and its applications. Undergraduate and graduate students will be involved in this research. Results will be communicated to the general public, K-12 educators and members of the US intelligence community. The detection of antineutrinos for nuclear nonproliferation purposes is of significant interest to US national security agencies.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 54.92K | Year: 2013

This award funds the acquisition of a Dionex Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) system to enhance faculty and student research opportunities and to improve teaching infrastructure at HPU. The ASE system will be used in a variety of active research projects funded by NSF and other agencies which require frequent use of ASE equipment for extraction of lipids, environmental contaminants, and natural metabolic products. The instrument will be used for a number of diverse projects including (a) carbon isotope fractionation in lipid biosynthesis by piezophilic bacteria isolated from the deeply buried Shimokita Coalbed (1498.48 and 2406.84 meter below the seafloor) in the northwest Pacific; (b) assessing historical changes in Kawai`nui marsh ecosystem; (c) measuring stress-induced hormones in wild dolphins as an indicator of negative environmental impacts on dolphin populations (d) the development of natural product chemical libraries; and (e) measuring organic contaminants in tissues of marine vertebrates. HPU is currently in transition from a predominantly undergraduate, non-Ph.D. granting teaching institution into a comprehensive university with a strong research program, and such state-of-the-art instrumentation will help facilitate this transition. Postdoctoral research associates and M.S. graduate and undergraduate students will be trained on the use of the instrument. Hawaii Pacific University (HPU) is a minority serving undergraduate research institution on the Island of Oahu in a state with few centers of higher learning in Hawaii compared with the continental United States. The HPU student population includes significant representation by local native Hawaiians as well as Pacific Islanders that come to Hawaii for a college education. Hence the funding of this instrumentation will have broad impacts on a diverse student population in research and education in fields such as Biology, Biochemistry, Marine Biology and Oceanography.

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