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Kaneohe, HI, United States

The Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology is a marine biology laboratory located on the state-owned Coconut Island in Kāne'ohe Bay. Coconut Island is approximately 29 acres , including 6 acres of enclosed lagoons used to keep organisms being studied in captivity. Surrounding it are 64 acres of coral reef, designated by the state of Hawai‘i as the Hawai‘i Marine Laboratory Refuge. It is part of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. It is the only research facility in the world built on a coral reef.The boundaries of the Hawaii Marine Laboratory Refuge surrounding the island start at the high-water mark on the island and go to twenty-five feet beyond the outer edges of the reefs, including sand and seawall shoreline, where coral and sand calcium carbonate reef flats are exposed at low tides. High coral and macro-algae flourish at shallow-depth zones while the deep habitats are characterized by sediment with low coral cover and colonized by slumping from upper reef zones. Within Kaneohe Bay are sheltered areas. Man-made impacts in the area include dredging, sewage release and freshwater flooding. The shores of the bay are characterized by coastal development. Wikipedia.

Briggs J.C.,Oregon State University | Bowen B.W.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2013

We synthesize the evolutionary implications of recent advances in the fields of phylogeography, biogeography and palaeogeography for shallow-water marine species, focusing on marine speciation and the relationships among the biogeographic regions and provinces of the world. A recent revision of biogeographic provinces has resulted in the recognition of several new provinces and a re-evaluation of provincial relationships. These changes, and the information that led to them, make possible a clarification of distributional dynamics and evolutionary consequences. Most of the new conclusions pertain to biodiversity hotspots in the tropical Atlantic, tropical Indo-West Pacific, cold-temperate North Pacific, and the cold Southern Ocean. The emphasis is on the fish fauna, although comparative information on invertebrates is utilized when possible. Although marine biogeographic provinces are characterized by endemism and thus demonstrate evolutionary innovation, dominant species appear to arise within smaller centres of high species diversity and maximum interspecies competition. Species continually disperse from such centres of origin and are readily accommodated in less diverse areas. Thus, the diversity centres increase or maintain species diversity within their areas of influence, and are part of a global system responsible for the maintenance of biodiversity over much of the marine world. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Jokiel P.L.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2011

A comparison of the equations for photosynthesis and calcification in reef corals suggests that the two processes compete for available inorganic carbon; yet reef corals exhibit simultaneous high rates of photosynthesis and calcification during daylight hours. Also, the extreme metabolic activity observed in corals at high irradiance requires a large net efflux of protons at sites of rapid calcification and respiration. Corals have resolved these problems through development of morphologies that separate the zone of rapid calcification (ZC) from the zone of rapid photosynthesis (ZP), with the fixed-carbon energy supply from the ZP being rapidly translocated to the ZC. Translocation of photosynthate from the ZP serves as a means of transporting protons to the ZC, where they are readily dissipated into the water column. Observations on the spatial relationship of the ZC and ZP, analysis of net proton flux, incorporation of photosynthate translocation coupled with an understanding of the importance of boundary layers (BL) leads to a unified hypothesis that describes the processes involved in coral metabolism. The proposed model is based on the observation that reef corals have evolved a wide range of morphologies, but all of them place the ZC between the ZP and the external seawater. This spatial arrangement places the BL in contact with the ZC in order to facilitate efflux of protons out of the corallum. Placement of the ZC between the ZP and the BL maximizes recycling of the metabolic products O2 and HCO3 -. Furthermore, this arrangement maximizes the photosynthetic efficiency of zooxanthellae by producing a canopy structure with the skeletal material in the ZC serving to absorb ultraviolet radiation (UVR) while scattering photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in a manner that maximizes absorption by the zooxanthellae. The ZP is isolated from the water column by the ZC and the BL. Therefore ZP must exchange metabolic materials with the ZC and with the water column through the ZC and its overlying BL. The resulting configuration is highly efficient and responsive to irradiance direction, irradiance intensity, water motion and coral polyp morphology. The skeletons of corals are thereby passively modified in response to physical factors such as light and water motion regime. The model presents a unified theory of coral metabolism and provides explanations for many paradoxes of coral biology, including plasticity of the diverse growth forms and an explanation for coral skeletal growth response to ocean acidification. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bird C.E.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Integrative and Comparative Biology | Year: 2011

The endemic Hawaiian limpets (Cellana exarata, Cellana sandwicensis, and Cellana talcosa), reside at different elevations on wave-exposed rocky shores and comprise a monophyletic lineage that diversified within Hawai'i. Here, I report phenotypic differences in shell, soft tissue, and behavioral characters among these limpets and discuss their potential utility in exploiting their respective niches. The high-shore limpet, C. exarata, is characterized by a tall round shell, short mantle tentacles, and long evasion distance when confronted by a predatory gastropod. The mid-shore limpet, C. sandwicensis, is characterized by a shorter oblong shell, long mantle tentacles, and a short evasion distance when confronted by a predatory snail. The low-shore, shallow-subtidal limpet, C. talcosa, is characterized by a flat shell that is thin in juveniles and disproportionately massive in large adults (relative to the other two species), and mantle tentacles of varying lengths (some individuals exhibit short tentacles, some long). These species-specific suites of characters are likely to confer specific fitness advantages on the high shore (C. exarata) where thermal and desiccation stress is severe, on the mid shore (C. sandwicensis) where hydrodynamic forces are severe, and on the low-shallow subtidal shore (C. talcosa) where pelagic predators have free access to the limpets. These data add to the growing body of evidence for adaptive diversification and speciation in the Hawaiian Cellana, and in marine species in general. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. Source

Jokiel P.L.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Data on calcification rate of coral and crustose coralline algae were used to test the proton flux model of calcification. There was a significant correlation between calcification (G) and the ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to proton concentration ([DIC]: [H{thorn}] ratio). The ratio is tightly correlated with [CO322] and with aragonite saturation state (Va). An argument is presented that correlation does not prove cause and effect, and that Va and [CO322] have no basic physiological meaning on coral reefs other than a correlation with [DIC]: [H{thorn}] ratio, which is the driver of G. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Rappe M.S.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2013

The value of cultivating microbial strains that are representative of abundant microorganisms in situ is generally acknowledged amongst marine microbial ecologists, primarily because they provide the means to determine phenotypic properties and detailed physiological characteristics of living cells in a controlled setting. In the shadow of the rapid, ongoing expansion in environmental genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic surveys of marine systems, a minor resurgence in experiments designed to isolate and grow free-living marine microorganisms has met some success. Interestingly, the most immediate impact that many of the resulting strains have had on our understanding of marine microbial communities has not resulted from experiments aimed to interrogate cellular physiology, but rather from their sequenced genomes. It is predicted, however, that their prolonged impact on marine ecology will result from basic laboratory research that links cellular physiology with its molecular underpinnings. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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