Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology

Kaneohe, HI, United States

Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology

Kaneohe, HI, United States

The Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology is a marine biology laboratory located on the state-owned Coconut Island in Kāne'ohe Bay. Coconut Island is approximately 29 acres , including 6 acres of enclosed lagoons used to keep organisms being studied in captivity. Surrounding it are 64 acres of coral reef, designated by the state of Hawai‘i as the Hawai‘i Marine Laboratory Refuge. It is part of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. It is the only research facility in the world built on a coral reef.The boundaries of the Hawaii Marine Laboratory Refuge surrounding the island start at the high-water mark on the island and go to twenty-five feet beyond the outer edges of the reefs, including sand and seawall shoreline, where coral and sand calcium carbonate reef flats are exposed at low tides. High coral and macro-algae flourish at shallow-depth zones while the deep habitats are characterized by sediment with low coral cover and colonized by slumping from upper reef zones. Within Kaneohe Bay are sheltered areas. Man-made impacts in the area include dredging, sewage release and freshwater flooding. The shores of the bay are characterized by coastal development. Wikipedia.

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Meyer C.G.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Bulletin of Marine Science | Year: 2017

The past six decades have seen the emergence of new electronic tag technologies enabling scientists to remotely study the behavior of fshes in a wide variety of aquatic habitats. Tis revolution began in the 1950s and 1960s with the frst studies utilizing acoustic and radio transmitters to actively track fsh movements. Subsequent decades saw the development of passive monitoring systems enabling researchers to scale up the number of individuals followed, and the duration and spatial extent of tracking studies. Recent decades also have witnessed the increasinglywidespread use of sophisticated satellite transmitters to quantify fsh movements in remote parts of the ocean beyond the range of fxed listening arrays. Most recently, highfrequency sampling devices incorporating accelerometers and other novel sensors have given us unparalleled new and detailed insights into fsh behavior. All of these technologies have yielded important insights into fsh spatial behaviors, and shown that many species are most active at night, or in deep waters, but we need better ground-truthing to reveal the full context and purpose of these spatial patterns. Recent advances in animal-mounted cameras have provided important ground-truthing breakthroughs, allowing us to see behavior and habitat use from the fshes' own perspective. However, current generations of animal-mounted cameras are reliant on natural light, or use artifcial light overlapping the visual spectrum of most fshes. To see what fshes are doing at night, we need to develop new animal-mounted cameras using far red spectrum light, or high-frequency sound, to illuminate the view feld without impacting natural behavior. © 2017 Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

Bowen B.W.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology | Rocha L.A.,California Academy of Sciences | Toonen R.J.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology | Karl S.A.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Recent phylogeographic studies have overturned three paradigms for the origins of marine biodiversity. (i) Physical (allopatric) isolation is not the sole avenue for marine speciation: many species diverge along ecological boundaries. (ii) Peripheral habitats such as oceanic archipelagos are not evolutionary graveyards: these regions can export biodiversity. (iii) Speciation in marine and terrestrial ecosystems follow similar processes but are not the same: opportunities for allopatric isolation are fewer in the oceans, leaving greater opportunity for speciation along ecological boundaries. Biodiversity hotspots such as the Caribbean Sea and the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle produce and export species, but can also accumulate biodiversity produced in peripheral habitats. Both hotspots and peripheral ecosystems benefit from this exchange in a process dubbed biodiversity feedback. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ainsworth T.D.,James Cook University | Thurber R.V.,Florida International University | Gates R.D.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2010

Microbial communities respond and quickly adapt to disturbance and have central roles in ecosystem function. Yet, the many roles of coral-associated microbial communities are not currently accounted for in predicting future responses of reef ecosystems. Here, we propose that a clearer understanding of coral-associated microbial diversity and its interaction with both host and environment will identify important linkages occurring between the microbial communities and macroecological change. Characterizing these links is fundamental to understanding coral reef resilience and will improve our capacity to predict ecological change. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Briggs J.C.,Oregon State University | Bowen B.W.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2013

We synthesize the evolutionary implications of recent advances in the fields of phylogeography, biogeography and palaeogeography for shallow-water marine species, focusing on marine speciation and the relationships among the biogeographic regions and provinces of the world. A recent revision of biogeographic provinces has resulted in the recognition of several new provinces and a re-evaluation of provincial relationships. These changes, and the information that led to them, make possible a clarification of distributional dynamics and evolutionary consequences. Most of the new conclusions pertain to biodiversity hotspots in the tropical Atlantic, tropical Indo-West Pacific, cold-temperate North Pacific, and the cold Southern Ocean. The emphasis is on the fish fauna, although comparative information on invertebrates is utilized when possible. Although marine biogeographic provinces are characterized by endemism and thus demonstrate evolutionary innovation, dominant species appear to arise within smaller centres of high species diversity and maximum interspecies competition. Species continually disperse from such centres of origin and are readily accommodated in less diverse areas. Thus, the diversity centres increase or maintain species diversity within their areas of influence, and are part of a global system responsible for the maintenance of biodiversity over much of the marine world. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Briggs J.C.,Oregon State University | Bowen B.W.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2012

Marine provinces, founded on contrasting floras or faunas, have been recognized for more than 150years but were not consistently defined by endemism until 1974. At that time, provinces were based on at least a 10% endemism and nested within biogeographic regions that covered large geographic areas with contrasting biotic characteristics. Over time, some minor adjustments were made but the overall arrangement remained essentially unaltered. In many provinces, data on endemism were still not available, or were available only for the most widely studied vertebrates (fishes), a problem that is ongoing. In this report we propose a realignment for three reasons. First, recent works have provided new information to modify or redefine the various divisions and to describe new ones, including the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Southern Ocean, Tropical East Pacific and Northeast Pacific. Second, phylogeographic studies have demonstrated genetic subdivisions within and between species that generally corroborated provinces based on taxonomic partitions, with a notable exception at the Indian-Pacific oceanic boundary. Third, the original separation of the warm-temperate provinces from the adjoining tropical ones has distracted from their close phylogenetic relationships. Here we propose uniting warm-temperate and tropical regions into a single warm region within each ocean basin, while still recognizing provinces within the warm-temperate and tropical zones. These biogeographic subdivisions are based primarily on fish distribution but utilize other marine groups for comparison. They are intended to demonstrate the evolutionary relationships of the living marine biota, and to serve as a framework for the establishment of smaller ecological units in a conservation context. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jokiel P.L.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2011

A comparison of the equations for photosynthesis and calcification in reef corals suggests that the two processes compete for available inorganic carbon; yet reef corals exhibit simultaneous high rates of photosynthesis and calcification during daylight hours. Also, the extreme metabolic activity observed in corals at high irradiance requires a large net efflux of protons at sites of rapid calcification and respiration. Corals have resolved these problems through development of morphologies that separate the zone of rapid calcification (ZC) from the zone of rapid photosynthesis (ZP), with the fixed-carbon energy supply from the ZP being rapidly translocated to the ZC. Translocation of photosynthate from the ZP serves as a means of transporting protons to the ZC, where they are readily dissipated into the water column. Observations on the spatial relationship of the ZC and ZP, analysis of net proton flux, incorporation of photosynthate translocation coupled with an understanding of the importance of boundary layers (BL) leads to a unified hypothesis that describes the processes involved in coral metabolism. The proposed model is based on the observation that reef corals have evolved a wide range of morphologies, but all of them place the ZC between the ZP and the external seawater. This spatial arrangement places the BL in contact with the ZC in order to facilitate efflux of protons out of the corallum. Placement of the ZC between the ZP and the BL maximizes recycling of the metabolic products O2 and HCO3 -. Furthermore, this arrangement maximizes the photosynthetic efficiency of zooxanthellae by producing a canopy structure with the skeletal material in the ZC serving to absorb ultraviolet radiation (UVR) while scattering photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in a manner that maximizes absorption by the zooxanthellae. The ZP is isolated from the water column by the ZC and the BL. Therefore ZP must exchange metabolic materials with the ZC and with the water column through the ZC and its overlying BL. The resulting configuration is highly efficient and responsive to irradiance direction, irradiance intensity, water motion and coral polyp morphology. The skeletons of corals are thereby passively modified in response to physical factors such as light and water motion regime. The model presents a unified theory of coral metabolism and provides explanations for many paradoxes of coral biology, including plasticity of the diverse growth forms and an explanation for coral skeletal growth response to ocean acidification. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Pochon X.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology | Gates R.D.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are crucial components of coral reef ecosystems in their roles as endosymbionts of corals and other marine invertebrates. The genus Symbiodinium encompasses eight lineages (clades A-H), and multiple sub-clade types. Symbiodinium in clades A, B, C, and D are most commonly associated with metazoan hosts while clades C, D, F, G, and H with large soritid foraminifera. Recent studies have described a diversity of new Symbiodinium types within each clades, but no new clades have been reported since 2001. Here, we describe a new clade of Symbiodinium isolated from soritid foraminifera from Hawai'i.

Jokiel P.L.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Data on calcification rate of coral and crustose coralline algae were used to test the proton flux model of calcification. There was a significant correlation between calcification (G) and the ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to proton concentration ([DIC]: [H{thorn}] ratio). The ratio is tightly correlated with [CO322] and with aragonite saturation state (Va). An argument is presented that correlation does not prove cause and effect, and that Va and [CO322] have no basic physiological meaning on coral reefs other than a correlation with [DIC]: [H{thorn}] ratio, which is the driver of G. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Rappe M.S.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2013

The value of cultivating microbial strains that are representative of abundant microorganisms in situ is generally acknowledged amongst marine microbial ecologists, primarily because they provide the means to determine phenotypic properties and detailed physiological characteristics of living cells in a controlled setting. In the shadow of the rapid, ongoing expansion in environmental genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic surveys of marine systems, a minor resurgence in experiments designed to isolate and grow free-living marine microorganisms has met some success. Interestingly, the most immediate impact that many of the resulting strains have had on our understanding of marine microbial communities has not resulted from experiments aimed to interrogate cellular physiology, but rather from their sequenced genomes. It is predicted, however, that their prolonged impact on marine ecology will result from basic laboratory research that links cellular physiology with its molecular underpinnings. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Jokiel P.L.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Bulletin of Marine Science | Year: 2011

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has been rising due to the burning of fossil fuels. Increased absorption of this CO 2 by the oceans is lowering the seawater pH and aragonite saturation state (Ω ar). This process is known as ocean acidification (OA). Numerous studies have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining Ω ar, and declining coral growth, but the mechanism is not understood. Various experiments designed to evaluate the relative importance of pH, CO 3 2-, Ω ar, HCO 3 -, aqueous CO 2, total alkalinity, and total inorganic carbon (C T) to coral calcification have led to opposing conclusions. A reanalysis of existing data suggests that the mechanism is diffusion limitation of net H + transport through the boundary layer caused by increasing [H +] in the water column. The resulting "proton flux hypothesis" offers an explanation for the reduction in calcification caused by OA and other phenomena associated with increasing acidification. The hypothesis states that the lowered calcification rate observed in corals under increasing conditions of OA can be attributed to higher [H +] in the seawater with consequent decrease in the efflux of H + through the boundary layer. © 2011 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science.

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