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Royal Kunia, HI, United States

Komor E.,University of Bayreuth | Komor E.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Hawaiian commercial sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp.), noble canes (S. officinarum), robust canes (S. robustum) and wild relatives of sugarcane (S. spontaneum and Erianthus arundinaceus) were tested by tissue blot immunoassay to determine whether they were infected by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV). Two-thirds of the commercial hybrids and noble canes were infected and therefore classified as SCYLV-susceptible, in contrast to the wild cane relatives where less than one third of the varieties were infected. The pedigree list of commercial, registered cultivars showed that 80% of cultivars were SCYLV-susceptible and that also 75-90% of the progeny of resistant (female) parents were susceptible (male parents are mostly unknown because of polycross breeding). In contrast, a cross between a resistant S. robustum and a susceptible S. officinarum cultivar yielded 85% resistant progeny clones, which indicated that SCYLV-resistance is a dominant trait. It is concluded that the breeding program selected against SCYLV-resistance with the result that 80% of the newly bred cultivars were susceptible. Exceptional was the period between 1950 and 1970, in which 50% of the newly-bred clones were resistant. This is the period in which SCYLV had entered Hawaii. Weed grasses and cereal grasses which grew in or next to sugarcane fields were not infected by SCYLV. Thus SCYLV does not spread from infected sugarcane plants to adjacent grasses or cereals under field conditions, although cereal grasses can be infected experimentally. © 2010 KNPV. Source

Lamichhane K.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Babcock R.W.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Turnbull S.J.,U.S. Army | Schenck S.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

A 15-week treatability study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential effects of molasses on the bioremediation and phytoremediation potential of Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum) for treating energetic contaminated soil from the open burn/open detonation area of the Makua Military Reservation, Oahu, HI (USA). The energetics in the soil were royal demolition explosive (RDX) and high-melting explosive (HMX). Among the 6 treatments employed in this study, enhanced removal of RDX was observed from treatments that received molasses and went to completion. The RDX degradation rates in treatments with molasses diluted 1:20 and 1:40 were comparable suggesting that the lower dose worked as well as the higher dose. Treatments without molasses degraded RDX slowly and residuals remained after 15 weeks. The bacterial densities in molasses-treated units were much greater than those without molasses. Phytoremediation alone seems to have little effect on RDX disappearance. For HMX, neither bioremediation nor phytoremediation was found to be useful in reducing the concentration within the experimental period. The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous in the soil did not change significantly during the experiment, however, a slight increase in soil pH was observed in all treatments. The study showed that irrigating with diluted molasses is effective at enhancing RDX degradation mainly in the root zone and just below it. The long term sustainability of active training ranges can be enhanced by bioremediation using molasses treatments to prevent RDX deposited by on-going operations from migrating through the soil to groundwater and off-site. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kliks M.M.,Cts Inc. | Jun S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Jackson M.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

Quantitative analysis of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose in different geographic origin honey samples in the world using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics such as partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression was studied. The calibration series consisted of 45 standard mixtures, which were made up of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose. There were distinct peak variations of all sugar mixtures in the spectral " fingerprint" region between 1500 and 800 cm-1. The calibration model was successfully validated using 7 synthetic blend sets of sugars. The PLS 2nd-derivative model showed the highest degree of prediction accuracy with a highest R2 value of 0.999. Along with the canonical variate analysis, the calibration model further validated by high-performance liquid chromatography measurements for commercial honey samples demonstrates that FTIR can qualitatively and quantitatively determine the presence of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose in multiple regional honey samples. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

Fitch M.M.M.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the most devastating disease of papayas worldwide. For 15 years, since 1998, genetically engineered, PRSV resistant Hawaii papayas, 'Rainbow,' 'SunUp', and 'Laie Gold' have been sold locally and 'Rainbow' has been exported to the western US. Following deregulation, it has been exported for eight years to Canada and for three years, on a very small scale, to Japan. Markets like Hong Kong that do not differentiate between non-transgenic products and genetically engineered organisms (GMOs) also import Hawaii GMO papayas. At least fifteen research groups attempted to develop GMO papayas, mostly for PRSV resistance. A majority of the papayas were resistant to their specific PRSV strains; however at least initially China is the only other country to have commercialized transgenic virus resistant papaya. Activity in & projects is reduced because of negative publicity and lack of funding, but several projects continue: delayed ripening in Malaysia and the Philippines (field testing); PRSV and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) broad resistance with single, double, and super-constructs in Taiwan; PRSV resistance construct development in Pune, India; multiplication of transgenic plants for PRSV resistance testing in Hainan, China; transformation of papaya for PRSV resistance with a gene from a papaya relative, Vasconcellea pubescens; and the final stages of deregulation of a second PRSV resistant papaya for Florida in the US. Source

Adamski D.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Dudley N.S.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Morden C.W.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Borthakur D.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Plant Species Biology | Year: 2012

Acacia koa A. Gray (koa) is a leguminous tree endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and can be divided into morphologically distinguishable groups of A.koaia Hillebrand, A.koa and populations that are intermediate between these extremes. The objectives of this investigation were to distinguish among divergent groups of koa at molecular levels, and to determine genetic diversity within and among the groups. Phylogenetic analyses using the ITS/5.8S rDNA and trnK intron sequences did not separate the representative koa types into distinct clusters. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis, based on allele profiles of 12 microsatellite loci for 215 individual koa samples, separated the population into three distinct clusters consistent with their morphology, A.koaia, A.koa and intermediate forms. There was an average of 8.8 alleles per polymorphic locus (AP) among all koa and koaia individuals. The intermediate populations had the highest genetic diversity (H′=1.599), AP (7.9) and total number of unique alleles (21), whereas A.koaia and A.koa showed similar levels of genetic diversity (H′=0.965 and 0.943, respectively). No correlation was observed between geographic distance and genetic distance as determined by a Mantel test (r=0.027, P=0.91). The data presented here support previous recommendations that morphological variation within koa should be recognized at the subspecific level rather than as distinct species. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 The Society for the Study of Species Biology. Source

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