Royal Kunia, HI, United States
Royal Kunia, HI, United States

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Kliks M.M.,Cts Inc. | Jun S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Jackson M.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

Quantitative analysis of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose in different geographic origin honey samples in the world using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics such as partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression was studied. The calibration series consisted of 45 standard mixtures, which were made up of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose. There were distinct peak variations of all sugar mixtures in the spectral " fingerprint" region between 1500 and 800 cm-1. The calibration model was successfully validated using 7 synthetic blend sets of sugars. The PLS 2nd-derivative model showed the highest degree of prediction accuracy with a highest R2 value of 0.999. Along with the canonical variate analysis, the calibration model further validated by high-performance liquid chromatography measurements for commercial honey samples demonstrates that FTIR can qualitatively and quantitatively determine the presence of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose in multiple regional honey samples. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®.


Wai C.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Wai C.M.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Moore P.H.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Paull R.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | And 4 more authors.
Chromosome Research | Year: 2012

Papaya is a model system for the study of sex chromosome evolution in plants. However, the cytological structures of the papaya chromosomes remain largely unknown and chromosomal features have not been linked with any genetic or genomic data. We constructed a cytogenetic map of the papaya sex chromosome (chromosome 1) by hybridizing 16 microsatellite markers and 2 cytological feature-associated markers on pachytene chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Except for three markers, the order of the markers was concordant to that of marker loci along the linkage map. This discrepancy was likely caused by skewed segregation in the highly heterochromatic or centromeric regions. The papaya sex chromosome is largely euchromatic, its heterochromatin spans about 15 % of the Y chromosome and is mostly restricted to the centromeric and pericentromeric regions. Analysis of the recombination frequency along the papaya sex chromosome revealed a complete suppression of recombination in the centromere and pericentromere region and 60 % higher recombination rate in the long arm than in the short arm. The uneven distribution of recombination events might be caused by differences in sequence composition. Sequence analysis of 18 scaffolds in total length of 15 Mb revealed higher gene density towards the telomeres and lower gene density towards the centromere, and a relatively higher gene density in the long arm than in the short arm. In an opposite trend, the centromeric and pericentromeric region contained the highest repetitive sequences and the long arm showed the lowest repetitive sequences. This cytogenetic map provides essential information for evolutionary study of sex chromosomes in Caricaceae and will facilitate the analysis of papaya sex chromosomes. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.


Waclawovsky A.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Waclawovsky A.J.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Waclawovsky A.J.,niversidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana | Sato P.M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2010

An increasing number of plant scientists, including breeders, agronomists, physiologists and molecular biologists, are working towards the development of new and improved energy crops. Research is increasingly focused on how to design crops specifically for bioenergy production and increased biomass generation for biofuel purposes. The most important biofuel to date is bioethanol produced from sugars (sucrose and starch). Second generation bioethanol is also being targeted for studies to allow the use of the cell wall (lignocellulose) as a source of carbon. If a crop is to be used for bioenergy production, the crop should be high yielding, fast growing, low lignin content and requiring relatively small energy inputs for its growth and harvest. Obtaining high yields in nonprime agricultural land is a key for energy crop development to allow sustainability and avoid competition with food production. Sugarcane is the most efficient bioenergy crop of tropical and subtropical regions, and biotechnological tools for the improvement of this crop are advancing rapidly. We focus this review on the studies of sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content, biomass and cell wall metabolism and the preliminary physiological characterization of cultivars that contrast for sugar and biomass yield. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Lamichhane K.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Babcock R.W.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Turnbull S.J.,U.S. Army | Schenck S.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

A 15-week treatability study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential effects of molasses on the bioremediation and phytoremediation potential of Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum) for treating energetic contaminated soil from the open burn/open detonation area of the Makua Military Reservation, Oahu, HI (USA). The energetics in the soil were royal demolition explosive (RDX) and high-melting explosive (HMX). Among the 6 treatments employed in this study, enhanced removal of RDX was observed from treatments that received molasses and went to completion. The RDX degradation rates in treatments with molasses diluted 1:20 and 1:40 were comparable suggesting that the lower dose worked as well as the higher dose. Treatments without molasses degraded RDX slowly and residuals remained after 15 weeks. The bacterial densities in molasses-treated units were much greater than those without molasses. Phytoremediation alone seems to have little effect on RDX disappearance. For HMX, neither bioremediation nor phytoremediation was found to be useful in reducing the concentration within the experimental period. The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous in the soil did not change significantly during the experiment, however, a slight increase in soil pH was observed in all treatments. The study showed that irrigating with diluted molasses is effective at enhancing RDX degradation mainly in the root zone and just below it. The long term sustainability of active training ranges can be enhanced by bioremediation using molasses treatments to prevent RDX deposited by on-going operations from migrating through the soil to groundwater and off-site. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


ElSayed A.I.,Zagazig University | Boulila M.,Institute Of Lolivier | Komor E.,University of Bayreuth | Zhu Y.J.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
Biochimie | Year: 2012

The 5898 nucleotide single-strand RNA genome of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) contains one long open reading frame, which is translated into a 120.6 kDa polyprotein. The sequences of SCYLV isolates from the two SCYLV-susceptible cultivars from Hawaii had a deletion of 48-51 nt in ORF1. SCYLV from 12 sugarcane hybrid cultivars from different origins were tested by RT-PCR using a specific set of primers, to investigate the genome segment for this deletion. Only three cultivars were found not to have the deletion (H87-4319, JA-605 and CP52-43), while SCYLV from nine cultivars (H73-6110, H87-4094, H78-7750, GT54-9, G84-47, H78-4153, H65-7052, C1051-73, Ph-8013) along with aphid (Melanaphis sacchari), which fed on SCYLV-infected H73-6110, contained a deletion of about 50 nt. The deleted sequence was located in the overlap frameshift of ORF1 and ORF2. Thus, ORFs 1 and 2 of SCYLV are translated via ribosomal frameshift and yield the 120.6 kDa viral replicase. ORF1 plays most likely a role in the replication and is a source of large variability among the virus population. To identify possible recombination events located in the RdRp domain of the Hawaiian isolates, two programs were used: RDP v.4.3 and RECCO. It is noteworthy that according both methods Haw73-6110 was found as a potential recombinant. On the other hand, opposed to the RDP package, RECCO revealed that Haw87-4094 isolate was also a recombinant whereas Haw87-4319 was not. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Adamski D.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Dudley N.S.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Morden C.W.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Borthakur D.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Plant Species Biology | Year: 2012

Acacia koa A. Gray (koa) is a leguminous tree endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and can be divided into morphologically distinguishable groups of A.koaia Hillebrand, A.koa and populations that are intermediate between these extremes. The objectives of this investigation were to distinguish among divergent groups of koa at molecular levels, and to determine genetic diversity within and among the groups. Phylogenetic analyses using the ITS/5.8S rDNA and trnK intron sequences did not separate the representative koa types into distinct clusters. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis, based on allele profiles of 12 microsatellite loci for 215 individual koa samples, separated the population into three distinct clusters consistent with their morphology, A.koaia, A.koa and intermediate forms. There was an average of 8.8 alleles per polymorphic locus (AP) among all koa and koaia individuals. The intermediate populations had the highest genetic diversity (H′=1.599), AP (7.9) and total number of unique alleles (21), whereas A.koaia and A.koa showed similar levels of genetic diversity (H′=0.965 and 0.943, respectively). No correlation was observed between geographic distance and genetic distance as determined by a Mantel test (r=0.027, P=0.91). The data presented here support previous recommendations that morphological variation within koa should be recognized at the subspecific level rather than as distinct species. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 The Society for the Study of Species Biology.


Zhu Y.J.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Lim S.T.S.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Schenck S.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Arcinas A.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Komor E.,University of Bayreuth
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) has been reported worldwide to infect sugarcane and to cause significant yield losses. Current detection methods include tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay (qRT-PCR). In this paper, we report the use and comparison of these detection methods for the study of SCYLV in Hawaiian cultivars. We observed positive RT-PCR and qRT-PCR reactions in cultivars previously thought (based on TBIA) to be immune to virus infection. The semi-quantitative virus titre in these cultivars was however at least 106-fold lower than in the cultivars which were known to be SCYLV-susceptible. The RT-PCR methods also revealed that plants of the cultivar H65-7052, which were previously shown to vary strongly between TBIA-positive and TBIA-negative, indeed exhibited fluctuating SCYLV-titres in a range of 103-104-fold. The virus titre was carried through to the next vegetative generation, i. e. plants grown from seed pieces with low virus titre had low virus titre and plants grown from seed pieces with high virus titre contained high virus titre. A small field trial comparing plants of cv. H65-7052 of low and high SCYLV-titre showed that the field plots with plants of high virus titre developed Yellow Leaf symptoms and yielded only 54-60% of cane and sugar tonnage compared to plots with plants of low virus titre. © KNPV 2010.


Komor E.,University of Bayreuth | Komor E.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Hawaiian commercial sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp.), noble canes (S. officinarum), robust canes (S. robustum) and wild relatives of sugarcane (S. spontaneum and Erianthus arundinaceus) were tested by tissue blot immunoassay to determine whether they were infected by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV). Two-thirds of the commercial hybrids and noble canes were infected and therefore classified as SCYLV-susceptible, in contrast to the wild cane relatives where less than one third of the varieties were infected. The pedigree list of commercial, registered cultivars showed that 80% of cultivars were SCYLV-susceptible and that also 75-90% of the progeny of resistant (female) parents were susceptible (male parents are mostly unknown because of polycross breeding). In contrast, a cross between a resistant S. robustum and a susceptible S. officinarum cultivar yielded 85% resistant progeny clones, which indicated that SCYLV-resistance is a dominant trait. It is concluded that the breeding program selected against SCYLV-resistance with the result that 80% of the newly bred cultivars were susceptible. Exceptional was the period between 1950 and 1970, in which 50% of the newly-bred clones were resistant. This is the period in which SCYLV had entered Hawaii. Weed grasses and cereal grasses which grew in or next to sugarcane fields were not infected by SCYLV. Thus SCYLV does not spread from infected sugarcane plants to adjacent grasses or cereals under field conditions, although cereal grasses can be infected experimentally. © 2010 KNPV.


Pereira-Caro G.,University of Glasgow | Borges G.,University of Glasgow | Nagai C.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Jackson M.C.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Changes occurring in phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids, during the growth of seeds of cacao (Theobroma cacao) cv. Trinitario, were investigated using HPLC-MS/MS. Extracts of seeds with a fresh weight of 125, 700, 1550, and 2050 mg (stages 1-4, respectively) were analyzed. The phenolic compounds present in highest concentrations in developing and mature seeds (stages 3 and 4) were flavonols and flavan-3-ols. Flavan-3-ols existed as monomers of epicatechin and catechin and as procyanidins. Type B procyanidins were major components and varied from dimers to pentadecamer. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, along with the N-phenylpropernoyl-l-amino acids, N-caffeoyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-3-hydroxytyrosine (clovamide), and N-coumaroyltyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and the purine alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, were present in stage 3 and 4 seeds. Other purine alkaloids, such as theophylline and additional methylxanthines, did not occur in detectable quantities. Flavan-3-ols were the only components to accumulate in detectable quantities in young seeds at developmental stages 1 and 2. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Fitch M.M.M.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the most devastating disease of papayas worldwide. For 15 years, since 1998, genetically engineered, PRSV resistant Hawaii papayas, 'Rainbow,' 'SunUp', and 'Laie Gold' have been sold locally and 'Rainbow' has been exported to the western US. Following deregulation, it has been exported for eight years to Canada and for three years, on a very small scale, to Japan. Markets like Hong Kong that do not differentiate between non-transgenic products and genetically engineered organisms (GMOs) also import Hawaii GMO papayas. At least fifteen research groups attempted to develop GMO papayas, mostly for PRSV resistance. A majority of the papayas were resistant to their specific PRSV strains; however at least initially China is the only other country to have commercialized transgenic virus resistant papaya. Activity in & projects is reduced because of negative publicity and lack of funding, but several projects continue: delayed ripening in Malaysia and the Philippines (field testing); PRSV and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) broad resistance with single, double, and super-constructs in Taiwan; PRSV resistance construct development in Pune, India; multiplication of transgenic plants for PRSV resistance testing in Hainan, China; transformation of papaya for PRSV resistance with a gene from a papaya relative, Vasconcellea pubescens; and the final stages of deregulation of a second PRSV resistant papaya for Florida in the US.

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