Berentsen S.,Haugesund Hospital |
Tjonnfjord G.E.,University of Oslo
Blood Reviews | Year: 2012
Exact diagnosis of the subtype has essential therapeutic consequences in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Cold-antibody types include primary chronic cold agglutinin disease (CAD) and rare cases of cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS) secondary to cancer or acute infection. Primary CAD is a clonal lymphoproliferative disorder. Not all patients require pharmacological therapy, but treatment seems indicated more often than previously thought. Corticosteroids should not be used to treat primary CAD. Half of the patients respond to rituximab monotherapy; median response duration is 11. months. The most efficient treatment to date is fludarabine and rituximab in combination, resulting in responses in 75%, complete responses in 20% and median response duration of more than 66. months. Toxicity may be a concern, and an individualized approach is discussed. Erythrocyte transfusions can be given provided specific precautions are undertaken. No evidence-based therapy exists in secondary CAS, but optimal treatment of the underlying disorder is essential when feasible. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Berge G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology |
Sando S.B.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology |
Rongve A.,Haugesund Hospital |
Aarsland D.,Karolinska Institutet |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2014
Background: Results conflict concerning the relevance of APOE alleles on the development of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), though they are well established in connection with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The role of APOE alleles in a Norwegian cohort of patients with DLB was therefore examined compared with patients with AD and healthy control individuals. Methods: The study included 156 patients with DLB diagnosed according to the consensus criteria guidelines, 519 patients diagnosed with AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS/ARDRA) criteria and 643 healthy elderly volunteers. Patients were recruited through hospitals, outpatient clinics, nursing homes or from local care authorities in central and south-western parts of Norway. Healthy individuals were recruited from caregivers and societies for retired people. Results: Subjects carrying an APOE ε2 allele had a reduced risk for developing DLB (OR 0.4, CI 0.3 to 0.8, p=0.004), and the onset of disease was delayed by 4 years (p=0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). Conversely, the APOE e4 allele increased the risk for development of DLB (OR 5.9, CI 2.7 to 13.0, p<0.0005 for homozygotes). Similar results were found for patients with AD regarding the effect of APOE ε2, though the protective effect appeared to be slightly less pronounced than in DLB. This study is one of the largest regarding DLB and APOE to date. Conclusion: The results indicate that APOE ε2, a protective factor in AD, has a clear beneficial effect on the development of DLB also. © 2014 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Bjoerke-Bertheussen J.,University of Stavanger |
Ehrt U.,University of Stavanger |
Rongve A.,Haugesund Hospital |
Ballard C.,Kings College London |
Aarsland D.,University of Stavanger
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders | Year: 2012
Background/Aims: To compare neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies(DLB). Methods: Neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver distress were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) in mild DLB (n = 57) and AD (n = 126), and compared across the two groups using non-parametric tests. Results: The DLB patients had a higher NPI totalscore (median 24 vs. 11.5, p < 0.005), more numerous symptoms (median 5 vs. 4, p = 0.001) and more clinically significant symptoms (3 vs. 1, p = 0.001). They also had higher item hallucinations (6 vs. 2, p < 0.005) and apathy (7 vs. 5, p = 0.002) subscores. Caregivers scored higher on the NPI total caregiver distress scale (12.5 vs. 6, p = 0.003). Conclusions: In mild dementia, DLB patients have more neuropsychiatric symptoms and more associated caregiver distress compared with AD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Bakkevold K.E.,Haugesund Hospital
Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology | Year: 2010
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine time trends in the incidence of peptic ulcer bleeding and risk factors in a defined geographical area in Norway. Material and methods: Retrospective data were collected for 306 patients with bleeding peptic ulcers admitted to one hospital during the 1985-1986, 1995-1996, and 2007-2008 periods. Results: The incidence in 1985-1986 was 52/100,000 and in 2007-2008 was 45/100,000. In the group aged 20-75 years, the incidence decreased by 54% from 54/100000 in 1985-1986 to 25/100000 in 2007-2008 (P = 0.001) and increased by 49% in the group aged >75 years from 272/100000 to 406/100000 (P = 0.0001). The use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory steroid drugs (NSAIDs) was 31% in 1985-1986 and increased to 67% in 2007-2008 (P = 0.004). In patients using aspirin or NSAIDs, Helicobacter pylori was present in 73% in 1995-1996 and in 51% in 2007-2008. H. pylori infection declined from 84% to 52% between 1995-1996 and 2007-2008. Conclusions: The incidence rate of peptic ulcer bleeding did not change between 1985-1986 and 2007-2008, but decreased in the age group #75 years and increased in the age group >75 years. The use of low-dose aspirin and NSAIDs increased substantially over time, and H. pylori infection was still present in 51% of these patients in 2007-2008. © Bakkevold.
Rongve A.,Haugesund Hospital |
Vossius C.,University of Stavanger |
Nore S.,Haraldsplass Hospital |
Testad I.,University of Stavanger |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2014
Objective We studied time until nursing home admission (NHA) in mild dementia and predictors for NHA in people with Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and how it compares to Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Methods Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards were applied. Results Median time until NHA was 1114 days (95% confidence interval [CI] [932, 1296]). In DLB median time until NHA was 663 days [472, 998]) as compared with 1336 days (1068, 1606) in AD, p < 0.0005. Predictors of shorter time to NHA in the DLB and AD groups in unadjusted analyses were a DLB diagnosis, the use of antipsychotic medication, more advanced age, longer duration of dementia symptoms prior to diagnosis, living alone, higher reported caregiver distress, and more neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of cholinesterase inhibitors was associated with halved risk of NHA in the combined DLB/AD group in the unadjusted Cox regression. In adjusted Cox regression in the DLB group, we found the use of cholinesterase inhibitors to be associated with reduced risk of NHA (HR = 0.24) and the use of antipsychotic medication to be associated with increased risk of NHA (HR = 37) during the study period. Conclusion Patients diagnosed with DLB had nearly 2 years shorter time to NHA than those diagnosed with AD. In the DLB group, the use of cholinesterase inhibitors was associated with reduced and the use of antipsychotics with increased risk of NHA. Future studies should explore whether better identification and management of the variety of clinical problems in patients diagnosed with DLB can delay NHA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.