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Srairi M.T.,Hassan II Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine Institute | Benyoucef M.T.,Algeria National School of Agronomy | Kraiem K.,Higher Institute of Agricultural science
SpringerPlus | Year: 2013

The Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) have experienced since the early 1950s a rapid demographic growth coupled to a significant rhythm of urbanization. This has led to a marked increase in the demand of dairy products. In order to secure the supply, specific policies have been implemented. They mainly consisted in the establishment of a dairy industry, based on the processing of either raw milk produced locally (in Morocco and Tunisia) or imported milk powder (in Algeria). These divergent options have had significant consequences on the whole organization of the dairy chains in these countries, from cattle rearing practices, to milk collection and processing. They have also implied differences in milk and its derivatives' prices and levels of consumption. The paper draws a comparative analysis of milk chains within the three countries: a supply mainly based on imports in Algeria, whereas in Morocco and Tunisia, the demand is satisfied by a chain relying on locally produced cattle milk. The paper also emphasizes on the future challenges that will have to be addressed: a rising volatility of milk and other strategic inputs' prices (feed, machinery, cattle, etc.) in global markets, an improvement in consumers' awareness about milk quality, a further pressure on natural resources (mainly soils and water) to get more raw milk, in countries already suffering an acute water stress. The article also establishes recommendations about specific issues related to the development of the dairy chains in the context of North Africa. These are mainly linked to the fragmented offer induced by numerous smallholder farms, which implies obvious difficulties to assess the hygienic and the chemical quality of milk batches delivered daily. Moreover, this fragmented offer also means that specific support programs will have to be designed, as the vast majority of farms are not dairy specialized, expecting both milk and calf crop from their herds. © 2013 Kumar et al.

Srairi M.T.,Hassan II Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine Institute | El Jaouhari M.,Hassan II Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine Institute | Saydi A.,Hassan II Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine Institute | Kuper M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of technical support provided to five small-scale cattle farms in the Tadla irrigation scheme (Morocco) on their milk yield. The first stage consisted of assessing the initial management of dairy herds, especially feeding strategies, and their effects on milk output. This diagnosis revealed major gaps between the existing and the potential milk yield, due to insufficient and imbalanced dietary rations. Based on this diagnosis, technical support was adapted to the reality of each farm by regularly adjusting the dietary rations to the production potential of lactating cows using available feed resources. The production potential of either pure Holstein or crossbred cows was based on the herd's physiological status and its genetic merit. Results showed that milk production could be rapidly improved by balanced dietary rations that enabled the average milk yield of lactating cows to be reached, while optimising feed costs and reducing the cost of milk production. Providing technical support to dairy farms should have a significant impact on overall milk production at different scales (irrigation scheme, plant supply area, national production) while alleviating the poverty of small-scale farmers. It would require the involvement of farmers' organisations such as milk collection co-operatives to replace services provided by the State, which is currently withdrawing from extension activities. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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