Rokonuzzaman M.,Khulna University of Engineering and Technology |
Nahas A.E.,Haskoning UK Ltd. |
Sakai T.,Mie University
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2015
An incomplete understanding of the failure mechanisms in fault rupture propagation has led to inconsistent and insufficient regulations in building codes. In the present study, a sophisticated numerical model is calibrated and validated in order to clarify a complex problem involving the interaction of fault ruptures, medium dense Fontainebleau sand deposits, and existing structures across the fault plane. Calibration is performed using direct shear test data. Repeatable centrifuge models of dip-slip normal faults with a dip angle of 60u in the free field condition and light and heavy rigid strong raft foundations are used for the validation. The present numerical model satisfactorily simulates the centrifuge models. Rigid rafts divert the shear bands so as to bypass the rafts, rather than rip them apart. The rafts tilt on the foundation soil during fault rupture. The raft-tilting increases as the raft bearing pressure on the soil decreases. © 2015 W. S. Maney & Son Ltd.
Batstone C.,JBA Consulting |
Lawless M.,JBA Consulting |
Tawn J.,Lancaster University |
Horsburgh K.,National Oceanography Center |
And 5 more authors.
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2013
The impacts of storm surges represent an increasing risk to the world's coastlines. Coastal planners require accurate estimates of flood risk in order to provide suitable defensive measures. Therefore a reliable methodology is required for the estimation of extreme sea-level probabilities at high spatial resolution along coastlines. This paper describes a new method for estimating these probabilities, with application to the UK coastline. The method consists of two components: the estimation of extreme sea-levels by applying a newly developed statistical method, termed the Skew Surge Joint Probability Method, with tide gauge records, and the use of hindcast sea-levels to dynamically interpolate these estimates around complex coastlines. The skew surge parameter is a more reliable indicator of meteorological impacts on sea-level than the non-tidal residual used in the Revised Joint Probability Method, as previously used in the United Kingdom. The method has been applied to the UK coastline to provide a database of extreme sea-level probabilities for the Environment Agency for England and Wales and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency. The database will be used to inform coastal defense strategy, flood mapping and forecasting and to support policy, implementation and operational decision-making. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geng C.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science |
Luo Q.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science |
Chen M.,Haskoning UK Ltd |
Li Z.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science |
Zhang C.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment | Year: 2010
Assessment of the potential risks posed by chlorinated solvents in groundwater is the key to establish the extent of the contamination and derive achievable remedial targets should remediation deems necessary. This article first presents the application of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Risk Based Corrective Actions (RBCA) Guidance to quantitatively evaluate human health and environmental risk for a former chemical works in Shanghai, China. The observed maximum trichloroethylene (TCE) concentration in groundwater at the site reached 1220 mg/l that exceeded its solubility of 1070 mg/l at 10°C (Soil annual average temperature is 10°C in Shanghai). The maximum concentration for cis-1, 2-DCE (DCE) was also found to be elevated at 264 mg/l. A critical exposure pathway was considered to be indoor vapor intrusion of TCE into the buildings with excess lifetime cancer risk for children being 1.7 × 10-3. This cancer risk exceeded regulatory limits of 1 × 10-4 to 1 × 10-6 for The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The calculated groundwater remedial targets for TCE and DCE are 7 mg/l and 904 mg/l, respectively, in order to protect child residents from inhalation of indoor vapors within the close proximity of the source area. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.