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Oneonta, NY, United States

Hartwick College is a non-denominational, private, four-year liberal arts and science college located in Oneonta, New York, in the United States. The institution's origin is rooted in the founding of Hartwick Seminary in 1797 through the will of John Christopher Hartwick. In 1927, Hartwick Seminary moved to expand into a four-year college and was offered land by the city of Oneonta to move to Hartwick College's current location. The school has 1,500 undergraduate students from 30 states and 22 countries, 187 faculty members and the student-faculty ratio is 11-1. Wikipedia.

Sessions S.K.,Hartwick College | Ballengee B.,University of Plymouth
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution | Year: 2010

Our recent study (Ballengeé and Sessions, 2009. J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol) 312B:1-10) shows that deformed frogs with missing limbs can be explained by sublethal ''selective predation'' by predators that are too small, or have mouthparts that are too small, to consume whole tadpoles. Skelly and Benard do not agree with our conclusions and feel that they are not well founded. Here we respond to their critique. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Eppes M.C.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Griffing D.,Hartwick College
Geomorphology | Year: 2010

Here we document for the first time in detail a natural landscape dominated by granular disintegration of marble and the associated production of marble grus sediment and corestones. We provide several lines of evidence for a thermal-mechanical origin for the observed granular disintegration and resulting corestones. In the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California, calcite marble outcrops whose average grain diameter is greater than approximately 0.5 mm are weathering into grus sediment and exhibit a corestone morphology. Minimal soil development in thick grus colluvium combined with results from a simple erosion experiment indicates that grus production and erosion is rapid. Our data indicate that unlike granite, marble granular disintegration and corestone development is a uniquely sub-aerial process. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and micro-probe analyses of rock samples collected in recent quarry exposures indicate that detachment of grain boundaries occurs primarily within the upper 2-20 cm of the outcrop surface. There is minimal evidence of secondary calcite dissolution or precipitation at grain boundaries below the upper-most few centimeters of the rock surface, despite widespread intergranular fracturing. At depths greater than 20 cm below the natural ground surface, granular disintegration and corestone weathering are not evident, and dissolution and precipitation of secondary calcite is only observed within a few centimeters of joint planes. Corestone morphology appears to form through the erosion of loosened grus debris at sharp edges of subaerially exposed joints. The resulting form represents a morphologic equifinality to that of granite corestones and results from different processes than those which have been proposed for granite. An 8-month, once-per-three minute temperature record from a thermocouple embedded into a marble corestone indicates that the upper 2.5 cm of the corestone regularly achieves temperatures greater than 40 °C, the temperature which is thought to be sufficient to produce permanent strain in calcite. All of these results are consistent with theoretical and experimental studies that indicate that marble is susceptible to mechanical weathering by thermal processes. Overall, this study provides new documentation that solar heating and cooling can be an important driver of physical weathering in natural systems of the Earth's surface. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rinfret S.R.,Hartwick College
Environmental Practice | Year: 2011

In practice, building collaborative relationships between environmental groups and industry is not an easy task during environmental rulemaking. However, this article uses original interview data to document a different perspective from agency officials and stakeholders across two case studies within the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ): the renewable fuels standard and the locomotive and marine engine rule. This article argues that OTAQ used a new approach, shuttle diplomacy, in these particular cases to negotiate stakeholder differences prior to publication of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. The findings from these interviews suggest that the intent of this rule development approach is to provide an atmosphere where stakeholders begin to trust in the process because they are helping to create it. Environmental Practice 13:1-8 (2011) © Copyright National Association of Environmental Professionals 2011.

Rinfret S.R.,Hartwick College
Review of Policy Research | Year: 2011

The purpose of this article was to question whether interest group actions during the pre-proposal stage of U.S. federal rulemaking influences the language proposed in natural resource agency rules. The influence of interest groups during this stage was examined across three case studies: (1) the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) critical habitat designation for Nebraska's Salt Creek tiger beetle, (2) the USFWS critical habitat designation for the Utah/Arizona Shivwits and Holmgren milk vetch, and (3) the USFWS delisting of the Northern Rocky Mountain gray wolf population from the endangered species list. To analyze these three cases, a frame analysis approach is used and offers evidence to support the proposition that the instructive, expertise, and fiscal feasibility frames that stakeholders used during the pre-proposal stage can shape the language of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. These cases suggest the rich potential for careful study of the earliest stages in the regulatory and administrative rulemaking process in the United States and beyond. © 2011 by The Policy Studies Organization.

Schultz K.D.,Hartwick College
American Journal of Physics | Year: 2016

Phase-sensitive detection is an important experimental technique that allows signals to be extracted from noisy data. Commercial lock-in amplifiers, often used for phase-sensitive detection, are expensive and host a bewildering array of controls that may intimidate a novice user. Low-cost microcontrollers such as the Arduino family of devices might seem like a good match for learning about such devices, but making a self-contained device that includes a reference signal, a voltage input, a signal mixer, a filter, and a display is difficult. Here, we present the construction of a phase-sensitive detector (PSD) using an Arduino. © 2016 American Association of Physics Teachers.

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