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Ou L.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Waddell M.B.,Hartwell Center for Bioinformatics and Biotechnology | Kriwacki R.W.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Kriwacki R.W.,University of Tennessee Health Science Center
ACS Chemical Biology | Year: 2012

p27 Kip1 (p27), a prototypical intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), regulates eukaryotic cell division through interactions with cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)/cyclin complexes. The activity, stability, and subcellular localization of p27 are regulated by phosphorylation. We illustrate how p27 integrates regulatory signals from several non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs) to activate Cdk4 and initiate cell cycle entry. Unmodified p27 potently inhibits Cdk/cyclin complexes, including Cdk4/cyclin D (IC 50, 1 nM). Some NRTKs (e.g., Abl) phosphorylate p27 on Tyr 88, which facilitates a second modification on Tyr 74 by another NRTK (e.g., Src). Importantly, this second modification causes partial reactivation of Cdk4 within ternary complexes containing doubly Tyr phosphorylated p27. Partial activation of Cdk4 initiates entry into the cell division cycle. Therefore, p27's disordered features enable NRTKs to sequentially promote a phosphorylation cascade that controls cell fate. Beyond cell cycle control, these results illustrate general concepts regarding why IDPs are well-suited for roles in signaling and regulation in biological systems. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Freibaum B.D.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Chitta R.K.,Hartwell Center for Bioinformatics and Biotechnology | High A.A.,Hartwell Center for Bioinformatics and Biotechnology | Taylor J.P.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2010

TDP-43 is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family of proteins. Recently, TDP-43 was shown to be a major disease protein in the ubiquitinated inclusions characteristic of most cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), taunegative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and inclusion body myopathy. In these diseases, TDP-43 is redistributed from its predominantly nuclear location to ubiquitin-positive, cytoplasmic foci. The extent to which TDP-43 drives pathophysiology is unknown, but the identification of mutations in TDP-43 in familial forms of ALS and FTLD-U suggests an important role for this protein in pathogenesis. Little is known about TDP-43 function and only a few TDP-43 interacting proteins have been previously identified, which makes further insight into both the normal and pathological functions of TDP-43 difficult. Here we show, via a global proteomic approach, that TDP-43 has extensive interaction with proteins that regulate RNA metabolism. Some interactions with TDP-43 were found to be dependent on RNA-binding, whereas other interactions are RNA-independent. Disease-causing mutations in TDP-43 (A315T and M337V) do not alter its interaction profile. TDP-43 interacting proteins largely cluster into two distinct interaction networks, a nuclear/splicing cluster and a cytoplasmic/translation cluster, strongly suggesting that TDP-43 has multiple roles in RNA metabolism and functions in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Finally, we found numerous TDP-43 interactors that are known components of stress granules, and indeed, we find that TDP-43 is also recruited to stress granules. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Chow L.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Chow L.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Endersby R.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Zhu X.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2011

Mutations in the PTEN, TP53, and RB1 pathways are obligate events in the pathogenesis of human glioblastomas. We induced various combinations of deletions in these tumor suppressors in astrocytes and neural precursors in mature mice, resulting in astrocytomas ranging from grade III to grade IV (glioblastoma). There was selection for mutation of multiple genes within a pathway, shown by somatic amplifications of genes in the PI3K or Rb pathway in tumors in which Pten or Rb deletion was an initiating event. Despite multiple mutations within PI3K and Rb pathways, elevated Mapk activation was not consistent. Gene expression profiling revealed striking similarities to subclasses of human diffuse astrocytoma. Astrocytomas were found within and outside of proliferative niches in the adult brain. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Srinivasan R.S.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Geng X.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Yang Y.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Wang Y.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Genes and Development | Year: 2010

The homeobox gene Prox1 is crucial for mammalian lymphatic vascular development. In the absence of Prox1, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are not specified. The maintenance of LEC identity also requires the constant expression of Froxl. However, the mechanisms controlling the expression of this gene in LECs remain poorly understood. The SRY-related gene Sox18 is required to induce Prox1 expression in venous LEC progenitors. Although Sox18 is also expressed in embryonic arteries, these vessels do not express Prox1, nor do they give rise to LECs. This finding suggests that some venous endothelial cell-specific factor is required for the activation of Prox1. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear hormone receptor Coup-TFII is necessary for the activation of Prox1 in embryonic veins by directly binding a conserved DNA domain in the regulatory region of Prox1. In addition, we show that the direct interaction between nuclear hormone receptors and Prox1 is also necessary for the maintenance of Prox1 expression during early stages of LEC specification and differentiation. © 2010 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source

Kasper L.H.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Lerach S.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Wang J.,Hartwell Center for Bioinformatics and Biotechnology | Wu S.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | And 2 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2010

It remains uncertain how the DNA sequence of mammalian genes influences the transcriptional response to extracellular signals. Here, we show that the number of CREB-binding sites (CREs) affects whether the related histone acetyltransferases (HATs) CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are required for endogenous gene transcription. Fibroblasts with both CBP and p300 knocked-out had strongly attenuated histone H4 acetylation at CREB-target genes in response to cyclic-AMP, yet transcription was not uniformly inhibited. Interestingly, dependence on CBP/p300 was often different between reporter plasmids and endogenous genes. Transcription in the absence of CBP/p300 correlated with endogenous genes having more CREs, more bound CREB, and more CRTC2 (a non-HAT coactivator of CREB). Indeed, CRTC2 rescued cAMP-inducible expression for certain genes in CBP/p300 null cells and contributed to the CBP/p300-independent expression of other targets. Thus, endogenous genes with a greater local concentration and diversity of coactivators tend to have more resilient-inducible expression. This model suggests how gene expression patterns could be tuned by altering coactivator availability rather than by changing signal input or transcription factor levels. © 2010 European Molecular Biology Organization | All Rights Reserved. Source

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