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Shine C.L.,University of Idaho | Shine C.L.,Hartpury College | Robbins C.T.,Washington State University | Nelson O.L.,Washington State University | McGowan C.P.,University of Idaho
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2017

The majority of terrestrial locomotion studies have focused on parasagittal motion and paid less attention to forces or movement in the frontal plane. Our previous research has shown that grizzly bears produce higher medial ground reaction forces (lateral pushing from the animal) than would be expected for an upright mammal, suggesting frontal plane movement may be an important aspect of their locomotion. To examine this, we conducted an inverse dynamics analysis in the sagittal and frontal planes, using ground reaction forces and position data from three high-speed cameras of four adult female grizzly bears. Over the speed range collected, the bears used walks, running walks and canters. The scapulohumeral joint, wrist and the limb overall absorb energy (average total net work of the forelimb joints, -0.97 W kg-1). The scapulohumeral joint, elbow and total net work of the forelimb joints have negative relationships with speed, resulting in more energy absorbed by the forelimb at higher speeds (running walks and canters). The net joint moment and power curves maintain similar patterns across speed as in previously studied species, suggesting grizzly bears maintain similar joint dynamics to other mammalian quadrupeds. There is no significant relationship with net work and speed at any joint in the frontal plane. The total net work of the forelimb joints in the frontal plane was not significantly different from zero, suggesting that, despite the high medial ground reaction forces, the forelimb acts as a strut in that plane. © 2017 Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


Sinclair J.,University of Central Lancashire | Hobbs S.J.,University of Central Lancashire | Protheroe L.,University of Central Lancashire | Protheroe L.,Hartpury College | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Biomechanics | Year: 2013

Biomechanical analysis requires the determination of specific foot contact events. This is typically achieved using force platform information; however, when force platforms are unavailable, alternative methods are necessary. A method was developed for the determination of gait events using an accelerometer mounted to the distal tibia, measuring axial accelerations. The aim of the investigation was to determine the efficacy of this method. Sixteen participants ran at 4.0 m/s ±5%. Synchronized tibial accelerations and vertical ground reaction forces were sampled at 1000 Hz as participants struck a force platform with their dominant foot. Events determined using the accelerometer, were compared with the corresponding events determined using the force platform. Mean errors of 1.68 and 5.46 ms for average and absolute errors were observed for heel strike and of -3.59 and 5.00 ms for toe-off. Mean and absolute errors of 5.18 and 11.47 ms were also found for the duration of the stance phase. Strong correlations (r = .96) were also observed between duration of stance obtained using the two different methods. The error values compare favorably to other alternative methods of predicting gait events. This suggests that shank-mounted accelerometers can be used to accurately and reliably detect gait events. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.


England G.C.W.,University of Nottingham | Phillips L.,Guide Dogs Breeding Center | Phillips L.,Hartpury College | Freeman S.L.,University of Nottingham
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

Retrospective analysis was performed on semen collected from 24 dogs (parents: 14 Labrador retrievers and 10 Golden retrievers) aged between 16 and 28 months of age. The dogs were part of a large breeding programme but lived in the homes of volunteer families. The semen was subjected to a standardised examination procedure including assessment of: percentage normal motility, sperm concentration, total sperm output, percentage of live normal sperm, and total number of live normal sperm. Semen was subsequently collected from one son of each of the parents when the offspring were aged between 16 and 28 mo (offspring: 14 Labrador retrievers and 10 Golden retrievers), and was subjected to the same examination procedures conducted by the same technician. Examination of breeding records demonstrated that each of the 48 dogs achieved at least one pregnancy within a period of 3 months before to 3 months after the semen collection.There was a weak correlation between parents and offspring for each of the 5 semen parameters, although none of these were statistically significant. Narrow sense heritability measures were low for all parameters except for the heritability of high sperm motility (rN2 = 0.57) and the heritability of low total sperm output (rN2 = 0.57).It is plausible that breeding selection procedures may be useful in dog breeding programmes in an attempt to improve semen quality, although any impact upon fertility is yet to be proven. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Hothersall B.,University of Bristol | Harris P.,Center for Pet Nutrition | Sortoft L.,Hartpury College | Nicol C.J.,University of Bristol
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2010

Behavioural observations suggest that smell is important in social discriminations between horses but balanced studies of this capacity are lacking. We used a habituation-discrimination procedure to investigate the ability of horses to distinguish between pairs of odour samples from different individuals. In Study 1, separate tests were conducted for urine, faeces or fleece fabric previously rubbed on the coat (to pick up body odour samples (BOS)) and donor pairs differed in sex, and age. 10 pregnant mares each underwent three tests, one per sample type. A test consisted of three successive 2-min presentations of a sample from Individual A with a simultaneous presentation of a sample from Individual B during the final presentation. Doubly repeated measures ANOVA indicated a main effect of sample type on investigative response (df. =2, f=7.98, P=0.004): durations were longer for BOS than for urine or faeces but habituation across trials was most consistent for urine. In the final presentation, mares demonstrated discrimination by investigating the novel urine sample (B) more than the repeated sample (novel: median 8.0. s, IQR. =10; repeated: median 2.5. s, IQR. =6; z=-2.558, P=0.008). In Study 2, urine samples from castrated male donors were used and neither mares nor their 4-month-old foals discriminated between samples from different individuals in the final presentation. The findings suggest that urine odour may contain some information that horses can use to discriminate between conspecifics. This may be limited to the level of broad categories such as sex or reproductive status; further investigation is needed to reveal what functional information can be transmitted and what compounds are involved. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Birch E.,Hartpury College | Lesniak K.,Center for Performance in Equestrian Sports
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

The Kennel Club (KC) and United Kingdom Agility (UKA) govern major dog agility competitions in the UK. Dogs are categorised into different jump heights depending on their height at the withers, with fence heights ranging from 300 to 650. mm for both organisations. Dogs fall into one of three height categories when competing under KC rules and one of four height categories under UKA rules. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an additional height category for agility dogs measuring over 430. mm at the withers. Jump heights were selected that related to the percentage of body height that dogs of 430. mm (7% lower) and 431. mm (51% higher) height at the withers would be encouraged to jump under UKA regulations without the addition of their fourth ('standard height') category. Joint angles were determined from anatomical markers placed on the forelimb and hind limb joints, and at six points along the vertebral column. As fence height increased, flexion of the scapulohumeral joint increased significantly for both the take-off and bascule (arc) phases of the jump. The increase in flexion as a consequence of the increase in fence height is likely to result in intensified stretching of the biceps brachii and supraspinatus muscles. In addition, increasing fence high resulted in an increase in the sacroiliac joint angle during take-off. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Shuttlewood C.Z.,Hartpury College | Greenwell P.J.,Hartpury College | Montrose V.T.,Hartpury College
Human Dimensions of Wildlife | Year: 2016

Pet ownership affects engagement with animal-related activities and may be related to support of wildlife management. British participants (N = 220) completed an online survey providing information on pet ownership, attitudes toward pets, and support for wildlife management strategies. Within this sample, pet owners and individuals with positive attitudes toward pets were less supportive of strategies that put human needs before the needs of wildlife, more supportive of strategies attempting to avoid species extinctions, and opposed to strategies requiring compromises of individual species. Pet owners’ affectionate attitudes toward animals and opposition to their exploitation may be important in dictating attitudes toward wildlife. Conservation planners could apply these findings when seeking support for management strategies that constrain freedoms of pets and wildlife. Utilizing the sympathetic attitudes of pet owners toward animals by focusing on welfare and survival benefits for wildlife species may help foster support for management strategies. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Chesterfield G.,Hartpury College | Potrac P.,University of Hull | Jones R.,University of Wales | Jones R.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
Sport, Education and Society | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to investigate how coaches perceived and responded to the content knowledge and assessment processes that they were exposed to during an advanced level soccer coaching award programme. In-depth interviews were conducted with six coaches who had successfully completed the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) 'A' Licence in the UK. Using the concepts of the 'dialectic of socialisation', 'studentship' and Goffman's (1959) work on 'the presentation of the self' as analytical pegs, the discussion highlights how the coaches were far from 'empty vessels' waiting to be filled. Rather, the findings reveal the active role that the respondent coaches played in terms of accepting, rejecting and resisting the knowledge, beliefs and methods espoused by the coach educators. Finally, perceiving of coach learning as a negotiated and contested activity is discussed in terms of its implications for existing and future coach education provision. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Grant R.A.,Hartpury College | Grant R.A.,Anglia Ruskin University | Conlan H.,Anglia Ruskin University
Animals | Year: 2015

Unusual behavior before earthquakes has been reported for millennia but no plausible mechanism has been identified. One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface. Aquatic and fossorial animals could be irritated by H2O2 and move down the concentration gradient. Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms. Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H2O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected. It is possible that earthworm swarming behavior, reported frequently before earthquakes, is caused by electric field shifts or another unknown mechanism, whereas zooplankton may be affected by increasing levels of H2O2. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Thorn M.,University of Brighton | Thorn M.,University of Pretoria | Green M.,University of Pretoria | Bateman P.W.,University of Pretoria | And 2 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2011

Carnivore survey protocols that properly address spatial sampling and detectability issues are seldom feasible at a landscape-scale. This limits knowledge of large-scale patterns in distribution, abundance and their underlying determinants, hindering conservation of globally threatened carnivore populations. Occupancy analysis of data from logistically efficient sign surveys along consecutive road segments (spatially auto-correlated replicates) offers a potential solution. We adapted and applied this newly-developed method over 62,979km 2 of human-modified land in South Africa. Our aims were to (1) generate unbiased estimates of brown hyaena occupancy and abundance (2) investigate two suspected determinants of occupancy using a combination of biological and socio-economic sampling techniques, and (3) use simulations to evaluate the effort required for abundance and occupancy estimates with acceptable bias, precision and power. Brown hyaena occupancy was estimated at 0.748 (±SE 0.1), and estimated overall density in agricultural land (0.15/100km 2, ±SE 0.08) was an order of magnitude lower than in protected areas. Positive attitudes to carnivores and presence of wildlife farms exerted strong positive effects on occupancy, so changes in these factors may well exert monotonic impacts on local metapopulation status. Producing reliable occupancy and abundance estimates would require ≥6 replicates and ≥12 replicates per site respectively. Detecting 50% and 30% declines in brown hyaena occupancy with adequate power would require five annual surveys at ≥65 sites and ≥125 sites respectively. Our results suggest that protocols based on spatially auto-correlated sign survey replicates could be used to monitor carnivore populations at large, and possibly even country-wide spatial scales. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Clarke R.,University of Gloucestershire | Dobson A.,Hartpury College | Hughes J.,University of Gloucestershire
Strength and Conditioning Journal | Year: 2016

To effectively develop physical parameters, training intensities should be individualized to suit an athlete's current fitness level, for example, percentage of 1 repetition maximum in strength and power development. regarding anaerobic or aerobic conditioning, a velocity prescription can be both accurate and effective in individualizing energy system development. however, there is a sparsity of research available comparing the range of tests capable of determining an appropriate velocity. The following review discusses the optimum way to determine an individual's desired training velocity through field-based testing. Copyright © 2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

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