Time filter

Source Type

Hartford, United States

BACKGROUND: Tracheal tube exchange is a simple concept but not a simple procedure because hypoxemia, esophageal intubation, and loss of airway may occur with life-threatening ramifications. Combining laryngoscopy with an airway exchange catheter (AEC) may lessen the exchange risk. Laryngoscopy is useful for a pre-exchange examination and to open a pathway for endotracheal tube (ETT) passage. Direct laryngoscopy (DL) is hampered by a restricted "line of sight"; thus, airway assessment and exchange may proceed blindly and contribute to difficulty and complications. We hypothesized that video laryngoscopy (VL), when compared with DL, will improve glottic viewing for airway assessment, and the VL-AEC method of ETT exchange will result in a reduction in airway and hemodynamic complications in high-risk patients when compared with a historical group of patients who underwent DL + AEC-assisted exchange. METHODS: Critically ill patients requiring an ETT exchange underwent DL-assisted pre-exchange airway assessment. If the DL-assisted pre-exchange assessment rendered a "poor view," these patients underwent a VL-based airway assessment followed by a VL-assisted ETT exchange procedure. The DL and VL pre-exchange assessments were compared. The attempts, complications, and rescue devices required for ETT exchange were analyzed. These exchange results were then compared with a historical control group of patients who (1) were classified as a poor view on DL-assisted pre-exchange airway assessment; and (2) underwent a DL + AEC-assisted exchange. The airway assessment and ETT exchange were performed by a board-certified anesthesiologist from the Department of Anesthesiology alone or with anesthesia resident assistance. RESULTS: Three hundred twenty-eight patients with a poor view on initial DL examination underwent a subsequent VL with comparison of views with the 337 patients in the historical control group (DL + AEC). A majority (88%) had a "full or near-full view" on VL examination. The first-pass success rate for ETT exchange was greater in the VL group (91.5% vs 67.7% with DL; P = 0.0001) and the number of patients requiring 3+ attempts was lower (1.2% vs 6.8% with DL; P = 0.0003). A commensurate difference in the incidence of mild and severe hypoxemia, esophageal intubation, bradycardia, and the need for rescue airway device intervention was also observed with VL exchange procedures when compared with the historical DL + AEC group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that VL may result in better glottic viewing for airway assessment and may permit the ETT exchange procedure to be performed with fewer airway and hemodynamic complications. Execution of the ETT exchange over an AEC was augmented by improved glottic visualization to allow more efficient and timely ETT passage. Multiple attempts to resecure the airway increased the number of exchange complications. VL + AEC exchange led to fewer attempts and is consistent with the recommendation of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Difficult Airway Task Force to limit laryngoscopic attempts and, as a consequence, decrease complications. A VL-based pre-exchange airway assessment may be a valuable procedure for both planning the exchange and uncovering unrecognized airway maladies, for example, partial or complete self-extubation. © 2015 International Anesthesia Research Society. Source

Williams P.T.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Thompson P.D.,Hartford Hospital
Mayo Clinic Proceedings

Objective: To test whether greater exercise is associated with progressively lower mortality after a cardiac event. Patients and Methods: We used Cox proportional hazard analyses to examine mortality vs estimated energy expended by running or walking measured as metabolic equivalents (3.5 mL O2/kg per min per day or metabolic equivalent of task-h/d [MET-h/d]) in 2377 self-identified heart attack survivors, where 1 MET-h/d is the energy equivalent of running 1 km/d. Mortality surveillance via the National Death Index included January 1991 through December 2008. Results: A total of 526 deaths occurred during an average prospective follow-up of 10.4 years, 376 (71.5%) of which were related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) (International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I00-I99). CVD-related mortality compared with the lowest exercise group decreased by 21% for 1.07 to 1.8 MET-h/d of running or walking (P=.11), 24% for 1.8 to 3.6 MET-h/d (P=.04), 50% for 3.6 to 5.4 MET-h/d (P=.001), and 63% for 5.4 to 7.2 MET-h/d (P<.001) but decreased only 12% for ≥7.2 MET-h/d (P=.68). These data represent a 15% average risk reduction per MET-h/d for CVD-related mortality through 7.2 MET-h/d (P<.001) and a 2.6-fold risk increase above 7.2 MET-h/d (P=.009). Relative to the risk reduction at 7.2 MET-h/d, the risk for ≥7.2 MET-h/d increased 3.2-fold (P=.006) for all ischemic heart disease (IHD)-related mortalities but was not significantly increased for non-IHD-CVD, arrhythmia-related CVD, or non-CVD-related mortalities. Conclusion: Running or walking decreases CVD mortality risk progressively at most levels of exercise in patients after a cardiac event, but the benefit of exercise on CVD mortality and IHD deaths is attenuated at the highest levels of exercise (running: above 7.1 km/d or walking briskly: 10.7 km/d). © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Source

VBP Program is a novel Medicare payment estimation tool used to encourage clinical care quality improvement as well as improvement of patient experience as a customer of a health care system. The program utilizes well established tools of measuring clinical care quality and patient satisfaction such as the Hospital IQR program and HCAHPS survey to estimate Medicare payments and encourage hospitals to continuously improve the level of care they provide. Source

Kim J.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Shapiro L.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Flynn A.,Hartford Hospital | Flynn A.,University of Connecticut Health Center
Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be separated into two broad etiological categories, based on the presence or absence of ischemia as a causative factor. In both ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease, myocardial dysfunction or damage frequently results in the development of heart failure, characterized by dyspnea, fatigue and reduced survival. As one of the least regenerative organs in the human body, current standards of care are limited to mitigating loss and preventing recurrence of damage, rather than stimulating actual regeneration of functional heart tissue. Cell based therapies using progenitor cells from bone marrow and the heart itself have been evaluated in preclinical models, and have demonstrated some promise. Accordingly, several clinical trials using autologous stem and progenitor cells have been performed, showing that these cells can be used safely in humans, and suggesting that they may improve relevant clinical parameters in patients with heart disease. Two specific cell populations that are particularly promising are the bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and the heart muscle derived cardiac stem cell (CSC). This review will summarize preclinical studies evaluating these stem cell populations and will discuss the clinical application of these cells in contemporary clinical trials, and potential future investigations. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Heller G.V.,Hartford Hospital
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology

Incorporating positron emission tomography (PET) imaging or PET/computed tomographic (PET/CT) imaging into a clinical cardiology practice provides opportunities to better assess patients as well as to expand the services offered by the practice. Clinical evidence continues to accrue, demonstrating the superior quality, the breadth of assessments possible, the diagnostic certainty and accuracy, and the lower patient radiation exposure of PET versus single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). PET imaging is more accessible to non-hospital imaging centers than ever before because of the availability of radiopharmaceuticals that can be generated on-site or delivered in unit doses from regional cyclotrons, and camera systems of lower cost than previously available. In this manuscript, we offer guidance on the many factors a practice must address before replacing an aging SPECT camera or adding new PET or PET/CT imaging capabilities. Key among these are defining the PET and CT procedures the practice members wish to perform, learning the equipment and radiotracers required to perform those procedures, determining whether their facility has sufficient physical space and shielding to accommodate the dedicated PET or PET/CT instrumentation, and addressing issues related to the practice's referral base, competition, cost-of-entry, reimbursement, and return on investment. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. Source

Discover hidden collaborations