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Columbia, MO, United States

Tuttle K.R.,University of Washington | Bakris G.L.,University of Chicago | Bilous R.W.,Northumbria University | Chiang J.L.,American Diabetes Association | And 12 more authors.
Diabetes Care

The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus have grown significantly throughout the world, due primarily to the increase in type 2 diabetes. This overall increase in the number of people with diabetes has had a major impact on development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), one of the most frequent complications of both types of diabetes. DKD is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), accounting for approximately 50% of cases in the developed world. Although incidence rates for ESRD attributable to DKD have recently stabilized, these rates continue to rise in high-risk groups such as middle-aged African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics. The costs of care for people with DKD are extraordinarily high. In the Medicare population alone, DKD-related expenditures among this mostly older group were nearly $25 billion in 2011. Due to the high human and societal costs, the Consensus Conference on Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes was convened by the American Diabetes Association in collaboration with theAmerican Society of Nephrology and the National Kidney Foundation to appraise issues regarding patient management, highlighting current practices and new directions. Major topic areas in DKD included 1) identification and monitoring, 2) cardiovascular disease and management of dyslipidemia, 3) hypertension and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade andmineralocorticoid receptor blockade, 4) glycemia measurement, hypoglycemia, and drug therapies, 5) nutrition and general care in advanced-stage chronic kidney disease, 6) children and adolescents, and 7)multidisciplinary approaches andmedical homemodels for health care delivery. This current state summary and research recommendations are designed to guide advances in care and the generation of new knowledge that willmeaningfully improve life for people with DKD. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

Glinskii O.V.,University of Missouri | Sud S.,University of Michigan | Mossine V.V.,University of Missouri | Mawhinney T.P.,University of Missouri | And 5 more authors.

Currently incurable, prostate cancer metastasis has a remarkable ability to spread to the skeleton. Previous studies demonstrated that interactions mediated by the cancer-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich glycoantigen (TF-Ag) and the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 play an important role in several rate-limiting steps of cancer metastasis such as metastatic cell adhesion to bone marrow endothelium, homotypic tumor cell aggregation, and clonogenic survival and growth. This study investigated the ability of a synthetic small-molecular-weight nontoxic carbohydrate-based TF-Ag mimic lactulose-L-leucine (Lac-L-Leu) to inhibit these processes in vitro and, ultimately, prostate cancer bone metastasis in vivo. Using an in vivo mouse model, based on intracardiac injection of human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells stably expressing luciferase, we investigated the ability of Lac-L-Leu to impede the establishment and growth of bone metastasis. Parallel-flow chamber assay, homotypic aggregation assay, modified Boyden chamber assay, and clonogenic growth assay were used to assess the effects of Lac-LLeu on tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium, homotypic tumor cell aggregation, transendothelial migration, and clonogenic survival and growth, respectively. We report that daily intraperitoneal administration of Lac-L-Leu resulted in a three-fold (P <.05) decrease in metastatic tumor burden compared with the untreated control. Mechanistically, the effect of Lac-L-Leu, which binds and inhibits galectins by mimicking essential structural features of the TF-Ag, was associated with a dose-dependent inhibition of prostate cancer cell adhesion to bone marrow endothelium, homotypic aggregation, transendothelial migration, and clonogenic growth. We conclude that smallmolecular-weight carbohydrate-based compounds targeting β-galactoside-mediated interactions could provide valuable means for controlling and preventing metastatic prostate cancer spread to the skeleton. © 2012 Neoplasia Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Bostick B.,University of Missouri | Habibi J.,University of Missouri | Ma L.,Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Hospital | Ma L.,University of Missouri | And 4 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

Objective Consumption of a high-fat/high-fructose Western diet (WD) is linked to rising obesity and heart disease, particularly diastolic dysfunction which characterizes early obesity/metabolic cardiomyopathy. Mounting evidence supports a role for inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis in the pathophysiology of metabolic cardiomyopathy. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a circulating exopeptidase recently reported to be elevated in the plasma of patients with insulin resistance (IR), obesity and heart failure. We hypothesized that a model of WD induced obesity/metabolic cardiomyopathy would exhibit increased DPP-4 activity and cardiac fibrosis with DPP-4 inhibition preventing cardiac fibrosis and the associated diastolic dysfunction. Materials/Methods Four-week-old C57BL6/J mice were fed a high-fat/high-fructose WD with the DPP-4 inhibitor MK0626 for 16 weeks. Cardiac function was examined by high-resolution cine-cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Phenotypic analysis included measurements of body and heart weight, systemic IR and DPP-4 activity. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to identify underlying pathologic mechanisms. Results We found that chronic WD consumption caused obesity, IR, elevated plasma DPP-4 activity, heart enlargement and diastolic dysfunction. DPP-4 inhibition with MK0626 in WD fed mice resulted in > 75% reduction in plasma DPP-4 activity, improved IR and normalized diastolic relaxation. WD consumption induced myocardial oxidant stress and fibrosis with amelioration by MK0626. TEM of hearts from WD fed mice revealed abnormal mitochondrial and perivascular ultrastructure partially corrected by MK0626. Conclusions This study provides evidence of a role for increased DPP-4 activity in metabolic cardiomyopathy and a potential role for DPP-4 inhibition in prevention and/or correction of oxidant stress/fibrosis and associated diastolic dysfunction. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Ericsson A.C.,University of Missouri | Myles M.,University of Missouri | Davis W.,University of Missouri | Ma L.,University of Missouri | And 3 more authors.

Helicobacter bilis-infected Smad3-/- mice represent an attractive model of inflammation-associated colon cancer. Most infected mice develop mucinous adenocarcinoma (MUC) by 6 weeks post inoculation (PI); however, approximately one third do not progress to MUC. The ability to predict the development of MUC in mice used in therapeutic studies would confer a considerable saving of time and money. In addition, the inadvertent use of mice without MUC may confound therapeutic studies by making treatments seem falsely efficacious. We assessed both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fecal biomarkers in Helicobacter- and sham-inoculated mice as methods of noninvasively detecting MUC before the predicted onset of disease. Non-contrast-enhanced MRI was able to detect lesions in 58% of mice with histologically confirmed MUC; however, serial imaging sessions produced inconsistent results. MRI was also a labor- and time-intensive technique requiring anesthesia. Alternatively, inflammatory biomarkers isolated from feces at early time points were correlated to later histologic lesions. Fecal expression of interleukin 1β, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted at 3 weeks PI correlated significantly with lesion severity at 9 weeks PI. For each biomarker, receiver-operator characteristic curves were also generated, and all three biomarkers performed well at 1 to 3 weeks PI, indicating that the development of MUC can be predicted based on the early expression of certain inflammatory mediators in feces. © 2010 Neoplasia Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Rolan T.D.,Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Hospital
Neurology: Clinical Practice

Snake envenomation is a global problem and often a matter of life or death. Emergency treatment is not always readily available or effective. There are numerous neurotoxic snakes in the Americas, chiefly elapids; some crotalids have also evolved neurotoxic venom. The variability of neurotoxins found in snake venom within the same species makes development and choice of proper antivenom a major challenge that has not been completely addressed. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical effects, and current treatment of neurotoxic snake envenomation in the Americas. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology. Source

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