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Zhang X.,University of Missouri | Yue Z.,Proportional Technologies, Inc. | Lu B.-Y.,Proportional Technologies, Inc. | Vazquez-Flores G.J.,Proportional Technologies, Inc. | And 7 more authors.
Current Radiopharmaceuticals

High-specific activity radiolabeled melanocortin peptide preparations are necessary for optimal melanoma imaging due to the relatively low number of melanocortin-1 receptors (MC1-Rs) per tumor cell. In this study, a one-step synthesis of 62Cu-labeled MC1-R targeting peptide Re(Arg11)CCMSH was developed, which yielded high specific activity radiolabeled peptide preparations that required no post-labeling purification. DOTA and NOTA conjugated Re(Arg11)CCMSH peptides were synthesized and examined for 62Cu radiolabeling and cell binding properties. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed to assess the in vivo tumor targeting and imaging characteristics of the optimal radiolabeled peptide. Melanoma cell binding affinities for NOTA-, NOTA-GGG-, and NOTA-GSG- conjugated Re(Arg11)CCMSH were determined to be 1.3x10-9M, 1.9x10-9M and 6.0x10-9M. The 62Cu radiolabeling efficiencies of DOTA- and NOTA- conjugated Re(Arg11)CCMSH analogs were 30% and >98% after 2 min at 24° C, while 0.5 μg of NOTA-GGG-peptide could be labeled to >95% with a maximum specific activity of 138 Ci/μmol. Tumor uptake of 62Cu- NOTA-GGG-Re(Arg11)CCMSH in B16/F1 melanoma bearing mice was 4.65±0.48% ID/g and 9.43±2.69% ID/g at 20 and 40 min post injection and was visualized by PET imaging. High specific activity 62Cu-NOTA-GGG-Re(Arg11)CCMSH was prepared in a one-step procedure at 24°C in 6 min. 62Cu-NOTA-GGG-Re(Arg11)CCMSH exhibited MC1-R selective binding and rapid tumor uptake in B16/F1 melanoma bearing mice that was confirmed by PET imaging studies. High specific activity 62Cu from a 62Zn/62Cu generator coupled with simple one step radiolabeling procedures makes 62Cu an attractive radionuclide for PET imaging of low-density receptor targets. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Liu D.,Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Administration Hospital | Liu D.,University of Missouri | Overbey D.,University of Missouri | Watkinson L.D.,University of Missouri | And 12 more authors.
Bioconjugate Chemistry

Analogues of the E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STh) are currently under study as both imaging and therapeutic agents for colorectal cancer. Studies have shown that the guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor is commonly expressed in colorectal cancers. It has also been shown that STh peptides inhibit the growth of tumor cells expressing GC-C. The ability to determine GC-C status of tumor tissue using in vivo molecular imaging techniques would provide a useful tool for the optimization of GC-C-targeted therapeutics. In this work, we have compared receptor binding affinities, internalization/efflux rates, and in vivo biodistribution patterns of an STh analogue linked to N-terminal DOTA, TETA, and NOTA chelating moieties and radiolabeled with Cu-64. The peptide F 19-STh(2-19) was N-terminally labeled with three different chelating groups via NHS ester activation and characterized by RP-HPLC, ESI-MS, and GC-C receptor binding assays. The purified conjugates were radiolabeled with Cu-64 and used for in vitro internalization/efflux, in vivo biodistribution, and in vivo PET imaging studies. In vivo experiments were carried out using SCID mice bearing T84 human colorectal cancer tumor xenografts. Incorporation of DOTA-, TETA-, and NOTA-chelators at the N-terminus of the peptide F19-STh(2- 19) resulted in IC50s between 1.2 and 3.2 nM. In vivo, tumor localization was similar for all three compounds, with 1.2-1.3%ID/g at 1 h pi and 0.58-0.83%ID/g at 4 h pi. The principal difference between the three compounds related to uptake in nontarget tissues, principally kidney and liver. At 1 h pi, 64Cu-NOTA-F19-STh(2-19) demonstrated significantly (p < 0.05) lower uptake in liver than 64Cu-DOTA- F19-STh(2-19) (0.36 ± 0.13 vs 1.21 ± 0.65%ID/g) and significantly (p < 0.05) lower uptake in kidney than 64Cu-TETA- F19-STh(2-19) (3.67 ± 1.60 vs 11.36 ± 2.85%ID/g). Use of the NOTA chelator for coordination of Cu-64 in the context of E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin analogues results in higher tumor/nontarget tissue ratios at 1 h pi than either DOTA or TETA macrocycles. Heat-stable enterotoxin-based radiopharmaceuticals such as these provide a means of noninvasively determining GC-C receptor status in colorectal cancers by PET. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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