Layton A.M.,Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust
Clinics in Dermatology | Year: 2017
Rosacea represents a common and chronic inflammatory skin disorder. Clinical features include transient and permanent erythema, inflammatory papules and pustules, phymatous changes, and ocular signs and symptoms. Rosacea is generally classified into four subtypes and one variant. Subtype 1, erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, includes clinical features of flushing and persistent central facial erythema with or without telangiectasia. Subtype 2, papulopustular rosacea, is characterized by persistent central facial erythema with transient papules or pustules or both on the central face. Subtype 3, phymatous rosacea, includes thickening of the skin with irregular surface nodularities and enlargement. Subtype 4, ocular rosacea, includes inflammation of different parts of the eye and eyelid. A variant, granulomatous rosacea, is noninflammatory and is characterized by hard, brown, yellow, or red cutaneous papules or nodules of uniform size. Patients may present with more than one subtype, and each individual characteristic may fluctuate. There is debate whether rosacea progresses from one subtype over time or subtypes represent discreet entities. Defining clinical presentation and improved understanding of pathophysiology has resulted in identification of novel treatment approaches. This contribution outlines a rationale for treatment, highlights an evidence-based approach with approved treatments, and considers novel developments and off-license therapy available. © 2016
Coates L.C.,University of Leeds |
Conaghan P.G.,University of Leeds |
Emery P.,University of Leeds |
Green M.J.,York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust |
And 4 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2012
Objective. To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) Study Group criteria in early psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and to compare them with the sensitivity and specificity of the Moll and Wright criteria. Methods. The CASPAR Study Group criteria were applied to patients with early PsA (<24 months symptom duration) and to control patients with other newonset inflammatory arthritides. Both groups were naive to all disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. The gold standard diagnosis was confirmed by the consulting rheumatologist using radiography and magnetic resonance imaging where required. Proportions of patients and control patients meeting the criteria were compared using McNemar's tests. Results. We recruited a total of 111 patients with early PsA and 111 control patients with other forms of inflammatory arthritis (82 with rheumatoid arthritis, 13 with undifferentiated arthritis, 9 with spondylarthritis, 4 with inflammatory osteoarthritis, and 3 with crystal arthritis) to the study. The sensitivity of the CASPAR Study Group criteria in classifying early PsA was 87.4% compared to 80.2% for the Moll and Wright criteria. The specificity for both criteria was 99.1%. When considering different cut points for the CASPAR Study Group criteria, the best cut point for classification remained a score of ≥3 as in the original CASPAR Study Group analysis. Considering a score of ≥2 gave a higher sensitivity of 99.1% but resulted in a drop in specificity to 94.6%. Regression analysis determined that psoriasis and rheumatoid factor negativity were the most important features that differentiated PsA, followed by nail psoriasis and current or previous dactylitis. Conclusion. The CASPAR Study Group criteria are more sensitive than the Moll and Wright criteria in classifying early PsA. Although their sensitivity for early PsA is lower than that for established disease, the CASPAR Study Group criteria are valid for use as inclusion criteria for trials in early PsA. © 2012, American College of Rheumatology.
McDowell A.,Queen's University of Belfast |
Barnard E.,Queen's University of Belfast |
Nagy I.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences |
Gao A.,University of Warwick |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
The Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is a member of the normal human skin microbiota and is associated with various infections and clinical conditions. There is tentative evidence to suggest that certain lineages may be associated with disease and others with health. We recently described a multilocus sequence typing scheme (MLST) for P. acnes based on seven housekeeping genes (http://pubmlst.org/pacnes). We now describe an expanded eight gene version based on six housekeeping genes and two 'putative virulence' genes (eMLST) that provides improved high resolution typing (91eSTs from 285 isolates), and generates phylogenies congruent with those based on whole genome analysis. When compared with the nine gene MLST scheme developed at the University of Bath, UK, and utilised by researchers at Aarhus University, Denmark, the eMLST method offers greater resolution. Using the scheme, we examined 208 isolates from disparate clinical sources, and 77 isolates from healthy skin. Acne was predominately associated with type IA1 clonal complexes CC1, CC3 and CC4; with eST1 and eST3 lineages being highly represented. In contrast, type IA2 strains were recovered at a rate similar to type IB and II organisms. Ophthalmic infections were predominately associated with type IA1 and IA2 strains, while type IB and II were more frequently recovered from soft tissue and retrieved medical devices. Strains with rRNA mutations conferring resistance to antibiotics used in acne treatment were dominated by eST3, with some evidence for intercontinental spread. In contrast, despite its high association with acne, only a small number of resistant CC1 eSTs were identified. A number of eSTs were only recovered from healthy skin, particularly eSTs representing CC72 (type II) and CC77 (type III). Collectively our data lends support to the view that pathogenic versus truly commensal lineages of P. acnes may exist. This is likely to have important therapeutic and diagnostic implications. © 2012 McDowell et al.
Dreno B.,University of Nantes |
Layton A.,Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust |
Zouboulis C.C.,Dessau Medical Center |
Lopez-Estebaranz J.L.,Hospital Universitario Fundacion Alcorcon |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2013
In the adult female, acne is a chronic condition with a substantial negative psychological, social and emotional impact. Based on time of onset, two subtypes of adult female acne are recognized: 'persistent acne' is a continuation of the disease from adolescence, while 'late-onset acne' first presents in adulthood. The morphological characteristics of adult female acne are often distinct from adolescent acne. In adults, inflammatory lesions (particularly papules, pustules and nodules) are generally more prominent on the lower chin, jawline and neck, and comedones are more often closed comedones (micro cysts). Adult acne is mainly mild-to-moderate in severity and may be refractory to treatment. A holistic approach to acne therapy should be taken in adult females, which combines standard treatments with adjunctive therapy and cosmetic use. A number of factors specific to the adult female influence choice of treatment, including the predisposition of older skin to irritation, a possible slow response to treatment, a high likelihood of good adherence, whether of child-bearing age, and the psychosocial impact of the disease. Adherence to therapy should be encouraged through further patient education and a simplified regimen that is tailored to suit the individual patient's needs and lifestyle. This article reviews the specific characteristics of adult female acne, and provides recommendations for acne therapy in this patient group. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Thiboutot D.M.,Pennsylvania State University |
Layton A.M.,Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust |
Eady E.A.,Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2014
Recent advances in our understanding of inflammatory skin diseases now afford an opportunity to delve deeper into microbial/host interactions in acne. Agak et al. report that Propionibacterium acnes induces IL-17 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and present new evidence that IL-17+ cells are found in the perifollicular infiltrate of comedones. Additional studies are needed to assess the clinical relevance of IL-17 in acne. © 2014 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.
Ooi N.,University of Leeds |
Eady E.A.,Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust |
Cove J.H.,University of Leeds |
O'neill A.J.,University of Leeds
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2015
Objectives: To investigate the antistaphylococcal/antibiofilm activity and mode of action (MOA) of a panel of redox-active (RA) compounds with a history of human use and to provide a preliminary preclinical assessment of their potential for topical treatment of staphylococcal infections, including those involving a biofilm component. Methods: Antistaphylococcal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution and by time-kill studies with growing and slow- or non-growing cells. The antibiofilm activity of RA compounds, alone and in combination with established antibacterial agents, was assessed using the Calgary Biofilm Device. Established assays were used to examine the membrane-perturbing effects of RA compounds, to measure penetration into biofilms and physical disruption of biofilms and to assess resistance potential. A living skin equivalent model was used to assess the effects of RA compounds on human skin. Results: All 15 RA compounds tested displayed antistaphylococcal activity against planktonic cultures (MIC 0.25-128 mg/L) and 7 eradicated staphylococcal biofilms (minimum biofilm eradication concentration 4-256 mg/L). The MOA of all compounds involved perturbation of the bacterial membrane, whilst selected compounds with antibiofilm activity caused destructuring of the biofilm matrix. The two most promising agents [celastrol and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA)] in respect of antibacterial potency and selective toxicity against bacterial membranes acted synergistically with gentamicin against biofilms, did not damage artificial skin following topical application and exhibited low resistance potential. Conclusions: In contrast to established antibacterial drugs, some RA compounds are capable of eradicating staphylococcal biofilms. Of these, celastrol and NDGA represent particularly attractive candidates for development as topical antistaphylococcal biofilm treatments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
Loveday H.P.,University of West London |
Wilson J.A.,University of West London |
Kerr K.,Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust |
Pitchers R.,The Water Council |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hospital Infection | Year: 2014
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen with a particular propensity to cause disease in the immunocompromised. Water systems have been reported to contribute to P.aeruginosa transmission in healthcare settings. Aim: To systematically assess the evidence that healthcare water systems are associated with P.aeruginosa infection; to review aspects of design that can increase their potential to act as a reservoir; and to compare the efficacy of strategies for eradicating contamination and preventing infection. Methods: A rapid review methodology with a three-step search strategy was used to identify published studies. Scientific advisors were used to identify unpublished studies. Findings: Twenty-five relevant studies were included. There was plausible evidence of transmission of P.aeruginosa from water systems to patients and vice versa, although no direct evidence to explain the exact mode of transfer. Two studies provided plausible evidence for effective interventions: point-of-use filters and increasing chlorine disinfection. Non-touch taps and aspects of water system design were identified as probable risk factors for P.aeruginosa biofilm formation and subsequent transmission to patients. Poor hand hygiene or compliance with contact precautions were identified as potential contributory factors; plausible evidence to confirm this was not available. Conclusions: Water systems can act as a source of P.aeruginosa infection in healthcare settings, although the route of transmission is unclear. Contamination appears to be confined to the distal ends of a water system and can persist for prolonged periods. Further studies are required to establish effective methods of preventing transmission and eradicating P.aeruginosa from plumbing systems. © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society.
Kocarev M.,Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust
Obstetrics and gynecology | Year: 2012
We present a case of a patient who had development of uterine clostridial myonecrosis after elective thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the absence of identifiable risk factors. A 51-year-old woman underwent uneventful thermal balloon endometrial ablation for the treatment of menorrhagia. The next day, she presented with acute inflammatory syndrome, severe intravascular hemolysis, and acute kidney injury. The blood cultures and the high vaginal swab showed moderate growth of Clostridium species. A total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful, and renal function gradually recovered. Clostridial myonecrosis after uncomplicated surgery, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the acutely septic patient with massive hemolysis, regardless of the presence of patient's risk factors.
Layton A.M.,Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust
Dermatologic Clinics | Year: 2016
Acne represents the most common inflammatory dermatosis seen worldwide and is the leading reason for seeing a dermatologist. This article provides some tips for managing acne in a safe and effective manner to minimize the physical and psychological scars that can result from acne. Tips include how to optimize available treatment regimens according to the evidence base and target therapy to pathophysiologic factors, while also tailoring treatments to patient expectation and needs. Attention is given to minimizing the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in acne patients and beyond. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Robinson T.,Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust
Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987) | Year: 2011
This article explores the underlying aetiology of pleurisy, including identification, assessment and management of the condition. Common causes of pleurisy, including differential diagnosis and the specific tests required to confirm diagnosis, are described. The role of the nurse in meeting the needs of patients with pleurisy is discussed.