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Newport, United Kingdom

Harper Adams University is a university located close to the village of Edgmond , in Shropshire, England. It is the UK's leading specialist provider of higher education for the agri-food chain and rural sector. Wikipedia.

Edwards S.G.,Harper Adams University College
World Mycotoxin Journal | Year: 2011

Zearalenone is an oestrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species which can infect cereals, in particular wheat and maize. The predominant species responsible for zearalenone production is Fusarium graminearum, which also produces the trichothecene mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol. The infection and subsequent mycotoxin production by Fusarium spp. is largely dependent on rainfall at flowering and before harvest. High concentrations of zearalenone in particular, appear to be produced during delayed wet harvests. There has been a recent and ongoing increase in F. graminearum incidence resulting in increased occurrence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone across northern Europe, where delayed wet harvests are more common. Zearalenone contamination of grain is largely restricted to the outer layers of wheat grain and therefore is partitioned into the bran fraction during milling. This results in higher concentrations of zearalenone in high fibre cereal products. After the delayed wet harvest in the UK in 2008, 29% of wheat at harvest exceeded the European limit for unprocessed cereals of 100 μg/kg. This resulted in difficulties in sourcing bran which would allow production of high fibre breakfast cereals within zearalenone limits and the European Commission provided a temporary derogation for high fibre breakfast cereals of 100 μg/kg zearalenone until 31 October 2009. Rainfall data and zearalenone concentrations in UK wheat from the last ten years were used to predict the occurrence of high zearalenone in wheat (10% or more of unprocessed wheat greater than 100 μg/ kg zearalenone). High zearalenone was predicted to occur one year in five for northern Europe which matches the observed incidence for the UK within the last ten years. As a consequence, current legislative limits for zearalenone in cereals and cereal products could impact on the availability of high fibre cereal products one year in five. © 2011 Wageningen Academic Publishers. Source

Rigatos G.G.,Harper Adams University College
Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering | Year: 2013

The paper proposes flatness-based adaptive fuzzy control for uncertain MIMO nonlinear dynamical systems. The considered control scheme based on differential flatness theory extends the class of systems in which indirect adaptive fuzzy control can be applied. To conclude if a dynamical system is differentially flat, the following should be examined: (i) the existence of the flat output, which is a variable that can be written as a function of the system's state variables (ii) the system's state variables and the input can be written as functions of the flat output and its derivatives. Nonlinear systems satisfying the differential flatness property can be written in the Brunovsky (canonical) form via a transformation of their state variables and control inputs. The resulting control signal is shown to contain nonlinear elements, which in case of unknown system parameters can be calculated using neuro-fuzzy approximators. Using Lyapunov stability analysis it is shown that one can compute an adaptation law for the neuro-fuzzy approximators which assures stability of the closed loop. The performance of the proposed flatness-based adaptive fuzzy control scheme is tested through simulation experiments on benchmark nonlinear multi-input multi-output dynamical systems, such as robotic manipulators. © 2013-IOS Press and the author(s). All rights reserved. Source

Mawby R.I.,Harper Adams University College
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2015

Despite the plethora of research on crime and rurality, relatively little has been written about location in terms of the offender or the victim. This is all the more surprising, given that wider criminological theories, such as routine activity theory, address how and why perpetrators and their victims are drawn to the crime locale, and perceptions of an endangered countryside often assign responsibility to outsider offenders. This contribution draws on the writer's work, between 2002 and 2005, in carrying out the Cornwall Crime Surveys (CCSs) in one rural county of England, to develop an exploratory model of crime and place in the countryside. In terms of both offender and victim, it is argued that location can be viewed in two ways: firstly, the status of offenders and victims in the area; secondly, their reasons for being at the crime scene. Thus victims' status in the area can be described according to whether they are: long term residents; recent arrivals; second home owners; temporary residents, e.g. seasonal workers; or visitors, e.g. holidaymakers or there on business. While their reasons for being at the crime scene may be because it is their home, workplace or a leisure facility. Similarly, offenders' status in the area can be described according to whether they are: long term residents; recent arrivals; temporary residents, e.g. seasonal workers; visitors, e.g. holidaymakers; travelling criminals; or commuter criminals. And their reasons for being at the crime scene may be because it is their home, workplace, or leisure facility, or a location specifically targeted.This model adds to our understanding of where and why offences are committed in rural areas, fear of crime, and what crime reduction measures might be most effective. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

The evolutionary and domestic ancestors of sheep and cattle will have evolved diet selection behaviours that enabled them to select a diet that met their individual nutrient requirements whilst minimising the risk of being killed through predation or by eating toxins. Modern intensive farming generally involves grazing monocultures or feeding total mixed rations and these restrict the ability of livestock to select their own diet. Research has shown that grazing sheep andcattle have a partial preference of approximately 70% for clover (when offeredas a monoculture sward alongside grass), and they show a consistent diurnal pattern of preference. Dairy cattle and sheep that are given the ability to select their own diet show higher levels of production than animals grazing mixed swards. There is some evidence that animals that can select their own diet are optimising their own efficiency of nutrient capture, and this potential environmental benefit warrants further research. Further research is also needed to establish if dairy cattle "need" to graze or whether they prefer to eat prepared rations indoors. Preventing animals from expressing their innate diet preferences by feeding them mixed rations may cause frustration and so compromise animal welfare, although this hypothesis requires further research. Source

Robinson P.A.,Harper Adams University College
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Despite many years of state-sponsored efforts to eradicate the disease from cattle through testing and slaughter, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still regarded as the most important and complex of animal health challenges facing the British livestock agricultural industry. This paper provides a historical analysis of the ongoing bTB statutory eradication programme in one part of the UK - Northern Ireland (NI) - which began in 1949 as a voluntary scheme, but between 1959 and 1960 became compulsory for all cattle herd-owners. Tracing bTB back through time sets the eradication efforts of the present day within a deeper context, and provides signposts for what developed in subsequent decades. The findings are based primarily on empirical research using historical published reports of the Ministry of Agriculture and state documents held in the public archives in NI, and they emphasize the need to consider the economic, social and political contexts of disease eradication efforts and their influences on both the past and the present. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015. Source

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