Rigatos G.G.,Harper Adams University College
Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering | Year: 2013
The paper proposes flatness-based adaptive fuzzy control for uncertain MIMO nonlinear dynamical systems. The considered control scheme based on differential flatness theory extends the class of systems in which indirect adaptive fuzzy control can be applied. To conclude if a dynamical system is differentially flat, the following should be examined: (i) the existence of the flat output, which is a variable that can be written as a function of the system's state variables (ii) the system's state variables and the input can be written as functions of the flat output and its derivatives. Nonlinear systems satisfying the differential flatness property can be written in the Brunovsky (canonical) form via a transformation of their state variables and control inputs. The resulting control signal is shown to contain nonlinear elements, which in case of unknown system parameters can be calculated using neuro-fuzzy approximators. Using Lyapunov stability analysis it is shown that one can compute an adaptation law for the neuro-fuzzy approximators which assures stability of the closed loop. The performance of the proposed flatness-based adaptive fuzzy control scheme is tested through simulation experiments on benchmark nonlinear multi-input multi-output dynamical systems, such as robotic manipulators. © 2013-IOS Press and the author(s). All rights reserved.
Mawby R.I.,Harper Adams University College
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2015
Despite the plethora of research on crime and rurality, relatively little has been written about location in terms of the offender or the victim. This is all the more surprising, given that wider criminological theories, such as routine activity theory, address how and why perpetrators and their victims are drawn to the crime locale, and perceptions of an endangered countryside often assign responsibility to outsider offenders. This contribution draws on the writer's work, between 2002 and 2005, in carrying out the Cornwall Crime Surveys (CCSs) in one rural county of England, to develop an exploratory model of crime and place in the countryside. In terms of both offender and victim, it is argued that location can be viewed in two ways: firstly, the status of offenders and victims in the area; secondly, their reasons for being at the crime scene. Thus victims' status in the area can be described according to whether they are: long term residents; recent arrivals; second home owners; temporary residents, e.g. seasonal workers; or visitors, e.g. holidaymakers or there on business. While their reasons for being at the crime scene may be because it is their home, workplace or a leisure facility. Similarly, offenders' status in the area can be described according to whether they are: long term residents; recent arrivals; temporary residents, e.g. seasonal workers; visitors, e.g. holidaymakers; travelling criminals; or commuter criminals. And their reasons for being at the crime scene may be because it is their home, workplace, or leisure facility, or a location specifically targeted.This model adds to our understanding of where and why offences are committed in rural areas, fear of crime, and what crime reduction measures might be most effective. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Robinson P.A.,Harper Adams University College
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015
Despite many years of state-sponsored efforts to eradicate the disease from cattle through testing and slaughter, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still regarded as the most important and complex of animal health challenges facing the British livestock agricultural industry. This paper provides a historical analysis of the ongoing bTB statutory eradication programme in one part of the UK - Northern Ireland (NI) - which began in 1949 as a voluntary scheme, but between 1959 and 1960 became compulsory for all cattle herd-owners. Tracing bTB back through time sets the eradication efforts of the present day within a deeper context, and provides signposts for what developed in subsequent decades. The findings are based primarily on empirical research using historical published reports of the Ministry of Agriculture and state documents held in the public archives in NI, and they emphasize the need to consider the economic, social and political contexts of disease eradication efforts and their influences on both the past and the present. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015.
Leather S.R.,Harper Adams University College
Ecological Entomology | Year: 2015
1. Entomology as a written science probably originated with the ancient Greeks; Aristotle being regarded as the first published entomologist. It was, however, not until the Renaissance and the invention of the microscope that any further advances were made. The formation of national entomological societies in the early and mid-19th century heralded the blossoming of entomology as a scientific discipline. 2. The role of entomology in the development of ecology as a science is often overlooked, but important concepts in ecology such as the role and types of mimicry, the theoretical development of population dynamics and island biogeography all have their roots in the pioneering work of entomologists. 3. Insect products have long played a part in the economies of human civilizations stretching back several thousand years from the development of the silk industry in China to modern day uses of the excretory products of Hemiptera such as cochineal and shellac. 4. The study of entomology has had indirect applications in human medicine and genetics, such as the development of cryostorage techniques based on an understanding of the freeze-avoidance strategies of Antarctic insects to the direct use of Dipteran larvae in maggot debridement therapy. 5. Insects and their products have been used as sources of food by humans since before written records existed, the use of honey for example, being recorded in pre-historic cave drawings. Insects as recognisable entities such as lepidopteran larvae and adult locusts, play a significant role in the diets of some cultures, but increasingly, the idea that processed insect material can be used as mainstream human and livestock food is gaining ground with a number of commercial enterprises being formed. 6. Culturally insects have long inspired humans, from ancient Egypt and their veneration of scarab beetles, portrayal of insects in ancient Mesoamerican art, in European painting from the medieval period onwards and in literature, poetry, and the performing arts including cinema and music. Although the depiction of insects has not always been positive, it is undeniable that they have had a marked influence on human culture. 7. Insects have also influenced engineers, with their form and function inspiring the development of airless tyres, desert water collection devices and unmanned aerial vehicles. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.
Harper Adams University College | Date: 2014-02-05
This invention concerns an electric drive system (