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Rowley C.,Harper Adams University Newport | Cherrill A.,Harper Adams University Newport | Leather S.,Harper Adams University Newport | Nicholls C.,AHDB Cereals and Oilseeds | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2016

Saddle gall midge Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cereals across Europe. The occasional nature of this pest has resulted in limited and sporadic research activity. There remain important gaps in knowledge due either to a genuine lack of research or to previous research being difficult to access. These knowledge gaps make the development of effective control options difficult. Here, we review the existing literature in an attempt to consolidate the information on H. marginata from research which spans several decades and encompasses many different countries. The current distribution and pest status of this insect are updated, along with the methods of cultural and chemical control available to growers. The biology and life history of the insect are described in detail and the ecological processes governing them are discussed. A forecasting model is presented which allows the emergence of this pest in the UK to be predicted from degree day data, and the potential application of this model in management decisions is discussed. Finally, the areas in most need of further research are identified, along with suggestions of how this information can be used to help develop effective and sustainable management solutions for this pest. © 2016 Association of Applied Biologists.

Walters K.F.A.,Harper Adams University Newport
Insect Conservation and Diversity | Year: 2016

Restrictions on the use of neonicotinoid insecticides in the European Union are widely debated in relation to bee decline, but their potential consequences at the interface between sustainable crop production and conservation are less frequently discussed. This paper raises issues to be considered if we are to achieve a balanced consensus in this contentious area. The common legal framework governing testing and environmental impact for all chemical crop protection products is highlighted, leading to concerns that the current focus on impact of neonicotinoids is diverting attention from other drivers of bee decline to the detriment of a balanced conservation strategy. The evidence for the causal relationship between neonicotinoid use and bee decline is considered and information gaps requiring further work identified. How research into the parallel use of pesticides and beneficial invertebrates in integrated pest management (IPM) can inform the pollinator debate is highlighted. The importance of the neonicotinoids in major IPM systems is illustrated, leading to discussion of potential consequences for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable crop protection if they were lost and we revert to reliance on other pest management options. Increasing agricultural production and conservation are sometimes viewed as being contradictory and the paper concludes by calling for a broadening of the discussion to consider the complimentary objectives of bee conservation and sustainable crop production, so that advances in both fields can hasten consensus on the way forward, rather than perpetuating the current rather polarised debate. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

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