Harold mmons Cancer Center

Dallas, TX, United States

Harold mmons Cancer Center

Dallas, TX, United States
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Beg M.S.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Gupta A.,Harold mmons Cancer Center | Stewart T.,Yale University | Rethorst C.D.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Journal of Oncology Practice | Year: 2017

Commercially available physical activity monitors provide clinicians an opportunity to obtain oncology patient health measures to an unprecedented degree. These devices can provide objective and quantifiable measures of physical activity, which are not subject to errors or bias of self-reporting or shorter duration of formal testing. Priorworkonso-called quantified-self datawasbasedonolder-generation, research-grade accelerometers, which laid the foundation for consumer-based physical activity monitoring devices to be validated as a feasible and reliable tool in patients with cancer. Physical activity monitors are being used in chronic conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Differing demographics, compounded with higher symptom and treatment burdens in patients with cancer, imply that additional work is needed to understand the unique strengths and weaknesses of physical activity monitors in this population. Oncology programs can systematically implement these tools into their workflows in an adaptable and iterative manner. Translating large amounts of data collected from an individual physical activity monitoring device into clinically relevant information requires sophisticated data compilation and reduction. In this article,wesummarize the characteristics of older-And newer-generation physical activity monitors, review the validation of physical activity monitors with respect to health-related quality-of-life assessments, and describe the current role of these devices for the practicing oncologist. We also highlight the challenges and next steps needed for physical activity monitors to provide relevant information that can change the current state of oncology practice. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Lee S.C.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Lee S.C.,Harold mmons Cancer Center | Marks E.G.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Sanders J.M.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Wiebe D.J.,University of CaliforniaMerced
Journal of Cancer Survivorship | Year: 2016

Purpose: We explored patient-perceived role in “decision-making” related to active treatment and palliation among African Americans receiving lung cancer care through a county safety-net system. Methods: Drawing from a cohort of over 100 African Americans treated in a safety-net hospital, we invited a subsample of 13 patient-caregiver dyads to participate in a series of dyadic, ethnographic interviews conducted at the patients’ homes. Over 40 h of transcripts were analyzed in an iterative process resulting in reported themes. Results: Findings from ethnographic interviews demonstrated that healthcare communication with physicians is difficult for patients. While caregivers and patients describe a deep engagement in lung cancer care, they expressed a concurrent lack of understanding of their prognosis and outcomes of treatment. Dyads did not discuss their lung cancer experience in terms of decision-making; rather, most articulated their role as following physician guidance. Distinct lack of understanding about disease course, severity, and prognosis may constrain patient perception of the need for informed decision-making over the course of care. Conclusions: Dyadic interviews detailing safety-net patient experiences of lung cancer care raise important questions about how clinicians, as well as researchers, conceptualize processes of informed decision-making in vulnerable populations. Implications for Cancer Survivors: Safety-net patients may not perceive their role as involving informed decision-making and further may lack understanding of disease course and individual prognosis. Safety-net patient dyads expressed high involvement in care and a desire for clarity; clinicians should be prepared to clearly communicate disease stage and prognosis. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Chivukula R.R.,Johns Hopkins University | Shi G.,Southwestern Medical Center | Acharya A.,Southwestern Medical Center | Mills E.W.,Johns Hopkins University | And 9 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2014

Downregulation of the miR-143/145 microRNA (miRNA) cluster has been repeatedly reported in colon cancer and other epithelial tumors. In addition, overexpression of these miRNAs inhibits tumorigenesis, leading to broad consensus that they function as cell-autonomous epithelial tumor suppressors. We generated mice with deletion of miR-143/145 to investigate the functions of these miRNAs in intestinal physiology and disease in vivo. Although intestinal development proceeded normally in the absence of these miRNAs, epithelial regeneration after injury was dramatically impaired. Surprisingly, we found that miR-143/145 are expressed and function exclusively within the mesenchymal compartment of intestine. Defective epithelial regeneration in miR-143/145-deficient mice resulted from the dysfunction of smooth muscle and myofibroblasts and was associated with derepression of the miR-143 target Igfbp5, which impaired IGF signaling after epithelial injury. These results provide important insights into the regulation of epithelial wound healing and argue against a cell-autonomous tumor suppressor role for miR-143/145 in colon cancer. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Shen M.J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Coups E.J.,Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey | Li Y.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Holland J.C.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 2 more authors.
Psycho-Oncology | Year: 2015

Objective Patients diagnosed with lung cancer report high levels of stigma and psychological distress. This study examined posttraumatic growth among lung cancer survivors as a potential buffer against this relationship between stigma and psychological distress and examined how these relationships differed by the timing of quitting smoking (pre versus post-diagnosis). Methods Stages IA and IB non-small-cell lung cancer survivors (N = 141) who were former smokers, 1-6 years post-treatment, and had no evidence of disease completed standardized questionnaires assessing stigma, posttraumatic growth, timing of quitting smoking history, and psychological distress. Results Hierarchical linear regression and simple slope analyses indicated that among those who quit smoking prior to diagnosis (pre-diagnosis quitters), stigma had a positive association with psychological distress at high levels of posttraumatic growth (p = 0.003) and had a positive (but non-significant) association with psychological distress among those with low levels of posttraumatic growth (p = 0.167). Among those who quit smoking after diagnosis (post-diagnosis quitters), stigma had a positive association with psychological distress among those with low levels of posttraumatic growth (p = 0.004) but had no relationship among those with high levels of posttraumatic growth (p = 0.880). Conclusions Findings indicate that posttraumatic growth buffers against the negative effects of stigma on psychological distress but only among post-diagnosis quitters. Future interventions could focus on fostering posttraumatic growth as a way to decrease the negative effects of stigma. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Singal A.G.,Parkland Health and Hospital System | Singal A.G.,Southwestern University | Singal A.G.,Harold mmons Cancer Center | Nehra M.,Parkland Health and Hospital System | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES:Only 40% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are diagnosed at an early stage, suggesting breakdowns in the surveillance process. The aim of our study was to assess the reasons behind surveillance process failures among patients in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-Term Treatment against Cirrhosis Trial (HALT-C), which prospectively collected HCC surveillance data on a large cohort of patients.METHODS:Binary regression analysis was used to identify predictors of consistent surveillance, which was defined as having an ultrasound and alpha-fetoprotein every 12 months. Surveillance failures among patients who developed HCC were classified into one of three categories: absence of screening, absence of follow-up, or absence of detection.RESULTS:Over a mean follow-up of 6.1 years, 692 (68.9%) of 1,005 patients had consistent surveillance. Study site was the strongest predictor of consistent surveillance (P<0.001). After adjusting for study site, patient-level predictors of consistent surveillance included platelet count >150,000/mm 3 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.56) and complete clinic visit adherence (HR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.11-2.63). Of 83 patients with HCC, 23 (27.7%) were detected beyond Milan criteria. Three (13%) had late-stage HCC due to the absence of screening, 4 (17%) due to the absence of follow-up, and 16 (70%) due to the absence of detection.CONCLUSIONS:Surveillance process failures, including absence of screening or follow-up, are common and potentially contribute to late-stage tumors in one-third of cases. However, the most common reason for finding HCC at a late stage was an absence of detection, suggesting better surveillance strategies are needed.

Singal A.G.,Southwestern Medical Center | Singal A.G.,Southwestern University | Singal A.G.,Harold mmons Cancer Center | Mukherjee A.,University of Michigan | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES:Predictive models for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been limited by modest accuracy and lack of validation. Machine-learning algorithms offer a novel methodology, which may improve HCC risk prognostication among patients with cirrhosis. Our study's aim was to develop and compare predictive models for HCC development among cirrhotic patients, using conventional regression analysis and machine-learning algorithms.METHODS:We enrolled 442 patients with Child A or B cirrhosis at the University of Michigan between January 2004 and September 2006 (UM cohort) and prospectively followed them until HCC development, liver transplantation, death, or study termination. Regression analysis and machine-learning algorithms were used to construct predictive models for HCC development, which were tested on an independent validation cohort from the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) Trial. Both models were also compared with the previously published HALT-C model. Discrimination was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and diagnostic accuracy was assessed with net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement statistics.RESULTS:After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 41 patients developed HCC. The UM regression model had a c-statistic of 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.67), whereas the machine-learning algorithm had a c-statistic of 0.64 (95% CI 0.60-0.69) in the validation cohort. The HALT-C model had a c-statistic of 0.60 (95% CI 0.50-0.70) in the validation cohort and was outperformed by the machine-learning algorithm. The machine-learning algorithm had significantly better diagnostic accuracy as assessed by net reclassification improvement (P<0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (P=0.04).CONCLUSIONS:Machine-learning algorithms improve the accuracy of risk stratifying patients with cirrhosis and can be used to accurately identify patients at high-risk for developing HCC.

Hamann H.A.,Harold mmons Cancer Center | Hamann H.A.,Southwestern Medical Center | Ostroff J.S.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Marks E.G.,Harold mmons Cancer Center | And 7 more authors.
Psycho-Oncology | Year: 2014

Background Although stigma may have negative psychosocial and behavioral outcomes for patients with lung cancer, its measurement has been limited. A conceptual model of lung cancer stigma and a patient-reported outcome measure are needed to mitigate these sequelae. This study identified key stigma-related themes to provide a blueprint for item development through a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews and focus groups with lung cancer patients. Methods Participants were recruited from two outpatient oncology clinics and included (i) 42 lung cancer patients who participated in individual interviews and (ii) 5 focus groups (inclusive of 23 new lung cancer patients). Never smokers, long-term quitters, recent quitters, and current smokers participated. Individual interviews facilitated theme development and a conceptual model of lung cancer stigma, whereas subsequent focus groups provided feedback on the conceptual model. Qualitative data analyses included iterative coding and validation with existing theory. Results Two main thematic elements emerged from interviews with lung cancer patients: perceived (felt) stigma and internalized (self) stigma. Discussions of perceived stigma were pervasive, whereas those of internalized stigma were more commonly endorsed among current and recently quit smokers. Participants also discussed maladaptive (e.g., decreased disclosure) and adaptive (e.g., increased advocacy) stigma-related consequences. Conclusions Results indicate widespread acknowledgment of perceived stigma among lung cancer patients but varying degrees of internalized stigma and associated consequences. Next steps for patient-reported outcome measure development are item consolidation, item development, expert input, and cognitive interviews before field testing and psychometric analysis. Future work should address stigma-related consequences and interventions for reducing lung cancer stigma. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Singal A.G.,Southwestern Medical Center | Singal A.G.,Southwestern University | Singal A.G.,Harold mmons Cancer Center | Yopp A.,Southwestern University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of General Internal Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Although surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is recommended in high-risk patients, several studies have suggested it is being underutilized in clinical practice. The aim of our study was to quantify utilization rates for HCC surveillance among patients with cirrhosis and summarize patterns of association between utilization rates and patient socio-demographic characteristics. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic literature review using the Medline database from January 1990 through March 2011 and a manual search of national meeting abstracts from 2008-2010. METHODS: Two investigators independently extracted data on patient populations, study methods, and results using standardized forms. A pooled surveillance rate with 95% confidence intervals was calculated. Pre-specified subgroup analysis was performed to find correlates of surveillance utilization. RESULTS: We identified nine studies that met inclusion criteria. The pooled surveillance rate was 18.4% (95%CI 17.8%-19.0%). Surveillance rates were significantly higher among patients followed in subspecialty gastroenterology clinics compared to those followed in primary care clinics (51.7% vs. 16.9%, p∈<∈0.001). Non-Caucasians and patients of low socioeconomic status had lower surveillance rates than their counterparts. Conclusions: Utilization rates for HCC surveillance are low, although they are significantly higher among patients followed in subspecialty clinics. Current studies fail to determine why HCC surveillance is not being performed. Future efforts should focus on identifying appropriate intervention targets to increase surveillance rates and reduce socio-demographic disparities. © 2011 Society of General Internal Medicine.

Singal A.G.,Southwestern Medical Center | Singal A.G.,Harold mmons Cancer Center | Singal A.G.,Southwestern University | Manjunath H.,Southwestern Medical Center | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Objectives: The PNPLA3 rs738409 single-nucleotide polymorphism is known to promote nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but its association with fibrosis severity and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is less well-defined. The objectives of this study were to determine the association between PNPLA3 and liver fibrosis severity, HCC risk, and HCC prognosis among patients with liver disease. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review using the Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases through May 2013 and a manual search of national meeting abstracts from 2010 to 2012. Two investigators independently extracted data on patient populations, study methods, and results using standardized forms. Pooled odds ratios (ORs), according to PNPLA3 genotype, were calculated using the DerSimonian and Laird method for a random effects model. Results: Among 24 studies, with 9,915 patients, PNPLA3 was associated with fibrosis severity (OR 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-1.45), with a consistent increased risk across liver disease etiologies. Among nine studies, with 2,937 patients, PNPLA3 was associated with increased risk of HCC in patients with cirrhosis (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.75). On subgroup analysis, increased risk of HCC was demonstrated in patients with NASH or alcohol-related cirrhosis (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.27-2.21) but not in those with other etiologies of cirrhosis (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.96-1.82). Three studies, with 463 patients, do not support an association between PNPLA3 and HCC prognosis but are limited by heterogeneous outcome measures. For all outcomes, most studies were conducted in homogenous Caucasian populations, and studies among racially diverse cohorts are needed. Conclusions: PNPLA3 is associated with an increased risk of advanced fibrosis among patients with a variety of liver diseases and is an independent risk factor for HCC among patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or alcohol-related cirrhosis. © 2014 by the American College of Gastroenterology.

Gerber D.E.,Harold mmons Cancer Center | Oxnard G.R.,Harold mmons Cancer Center | Govindan R.,Harold mmons Cancer Center
Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics | Year: 2015

The identification of druggable molecular alterations represents one of the greatest advances in cancer treatment. Such progress is particularly evident for lung cancer, which now has numerous molecularly defined subsets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements. However, understanding of the significance of these genomic alterations is largely limited to incurable, metastatic lung cancer. ALCHEMIST (Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trial) is a National Cancer Institute-sponsored initiative to address these questions in earlier-stage disease. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

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