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Madison, WI, United States

Bendlin B.B.,Geriatric Research Educational and Clinical Center | Bendlin B.B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Canu E.,Geriatric Research Educational and Clinical Center | Canu E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 21 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2011

Rhesus macaques on a calorie restricted diet (CR) develop less age-related disease, have virtually no indication of diabetes, are protected against sarcopenia, and potentially live longer. Beneficial effects of caloric restriction likely include reductions in age-related inflammation and oxidative damage. Oligodendrocytes are particularly susceptible to inflammation and oxidative stress, therefore, we hypothesized that CR would have a beneficial effect on brain white matter and would attenuate age-related decline in this tissue. CR monkeys and controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A beneficial effect of CR indexed by DTI was observed in superior longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, external capsule, and brainstem. Aging effects were observed in several regions, although CR appeared to attenuate age-related alterations in superior longitudinal fasciculus, frontal white matter, external capsule, right parahippocampal white matter, and dorsal occipital bundle. The results, however, were regionally specific and also suggested that CR is not salutary across all white matter. Further evaluation of this unique cohort of elderly primates to mortality will shed light on the ultimate benefits of an adult-onset, moderate CR diet for deferring brain aging. © 2011.

Bennett A.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Bennett A.J.,Harlow Primate Laboratory | Perkins C.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Harty N.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science | Year: 2014

Continued progress to move evidence-based best practices into community and regulatory animal welfare standards depends in part on developing common metrics to assess cost, benefit, and relative value. Here we describe a model approach to evidence-based evaluation and an example of comprehensive cost-benefit assessment for a common element of environmental enrichment plans for laboratory-housed nonhuman primates. Foraging devices encourage a species-typical activity that dominates the time budget of primates outside captivity and provide inherent cognitive challenges, physical activity demands, and multi-sensory stimulation. However, their implementation is not standard, and is challenged by perception of high costs and labor; nutritional and health concerns; and identification of best practices in implementation (that is, device types, food type, frequency of delivery and rotation). To address these issues, we directly compared monkeys' engagement with different foraging devices and the comprehensive cost of implementing foraging opportunities. We recorded 14 adult male cynomolgus monkeys' interactions with 7 types of devices filled with a range of enrichment foods. All devices elicited foraging behavior, but there were significant differences among them both initially and over subsequent observations. Devices that afforded opportunity for extraction of small food items and that posed manipulative challenge elicited greater manipulation. The cost of providing a foraging opportunity to a single monkey is roughly US$1, with approximately 80% attributable to labor. This study is the first to perform a rigorous cost-benefit analysis and comparison of common foraging devices included in environmental enrichment. Its broader significance lies in its contribution to the development of methods to facilitate improvement in evidence-based practices and common standards to enhance laboratory animal welfare. Copyright 2014 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

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