Weber K.,Harlan Laboratories Ltd.
Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2011
Neoplasms of the nervous system, whether spontaneous or induced, are infrequent in laboratory rodents and very rare in other laboratory animal species. The morphology of neural tumors depends on the intrinsic functions and properties of the cell type, the interactions between the neoplasm and surrounding normal tissue, and regressive changes. The incidence of neural neoplasms varies with sex, location, and age of tumor onset. Although the onset of spontaneous tumor development cannot be established in routine oncogenicity studies, calculations using the time of diagnosis (day of death) have revealed significant differences in tumor biology among different rat strains. In the central nervous system, granular cell tumors (a meningioma variant), followed by glial tumors, are the most common neoplasms in rats, whereas glial cell tumors are observed most frequently in mice. Central nervous system tumors usually affect the brain rather than the spinal cord. Other than adrenal gland pheochromocytomas, the most common neoplasms of the peripheral nervous system are schwannomas. Neural tumors may develop in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system from other cell lineages (including extraneural elements like adipose tissue and lymphocytes), but such lesions are very rare in laboratory animals.
Strupp C.,Harlan Laboratories Ltd.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2011
Beryllium metal was classified in Europe collectively with beryllium compounds, e.g. soluble salts. Toxicological equivalence was assumed despite greatly differing physicochemical properties. Following introduction of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, beryllium metal was classified as individual substance and more investigational efforts to appropriately characterize beryllium metal as a specific substance apart from soluble beryllium compounds was required. A literature search on toxicity of beryllium metal was conducted, and the resulting literature compiled together with the results of a recently performed study package into a comprehensive data set. Testing performed under Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development guidelines and Good Laboratory Practice concluded that beryllium metal was neither a skin irritant, an eye irritant, a skin sensitizer nor evoked any clinical signs of acute oral toxicity; discrepancies between the current legal classification of beryllium metal in the European Union (EU) and the experimental results were identified. Furthermore, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity were discussed in the context of the literature data and the new experimental data. It was concluded that beryllium metal is unlikely to be a classical nonthreshold mutagen. Effects on DNA repair and morphological cell transformation were observed but need further investigation to evaluate their relevance in vivo. Animal carcinogenicity studies deliver evidence of carcinogenicity in the rat; however, lung overload may be a species-specific confounding factor in the existing studies, and studies in other species do not give convincing evidence of carcinogenicity. Epidemiology has been intensively discussed over the last years and has the problem that the studies base on the same US beryllium production population and do not distinguish between metal and soluble compounds. It is noted that the correlation between beryllium exposure and carcinogenicity, even including the soluble compounds, remains under discussion in the scientific community and active research is continuing.
Strupp C.,Harlan Laboratories Ltd.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2011
The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral toxic properties.
Lorenz C.,ETH Zurich |
Von Goetz N.,ETH Zurich |
Scheringer M.,ETH Zurich |
Wormuth M.,Harlan Laboratories Ltd. |
Hungerbuhler K.,ETH Zurich
Nanotoxicology | Year: 2011
The rapid increase in the number of consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) raises concerns about an appropriate risk assessment of these products. Along with toxicological data, exposure estimates are essential for assessing risk. Currently, cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCP) represent the largest ENP-containing consumer product class on the market. We analyzed factors influencing the likelihood that ENP-containing products are available to consumers. We modelled potential external exposure of German consumers, assuming a maximum possible case where only ENP-containing products are used. The distribution of exposure levels within the population due to different behavior patterns was included by using data from an extensive database on consumer behavior. Exposure levels were found to vary significantly between products and between consumers showing different behavior patterns. The assessment scheme developed here represents a basis for refined exposure modelling as soon as more specific information about ENPs in C&PCP becomes available. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.
Thorpe K.L.,University of Basel |
Thorpe K.L.,University of Prince Edward Island |
Marca Pereira M.L.,University of Basel |
Schiffer H.,University of Basel |
And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2011
Exogenous treatment of fish with natural sex hormones and their mimics has been shown to influence gonadal differentiation resulting in biased phenotypic sex-ratios. This has lead to the development of the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) as a method for the detection of endocrine active chemicals. Proposed test organisms include the medaka, zebrafish (ZF) and stickleback, although the guideline also allows for inclusion of species such as the fathead minnow (FHM), provided the test duration allows for sufficient sexual differentiation. However, although the processes underlying sexual differentiation are known to differ for each of these species, it is not known how, or if, these differences would influence the results of the FSDT. In the experiments reported here, responses of the ZF and FHM to prochloraz, a sterol biosynthesis inhibitor and androgen antagonist, were characterized and compared. Exposure to 320. μg/L of prochloraz, from embryo until 60 (ZF) or 95-125 (FHM) days post hatch inhibited somatic growth of both species, but while a negative impact on ZF larval survival was observed (LOEC 32. μg/L) there was no evidence for an effect on FHM larval survival. Prochloraz influenced sexual differentiation in both species by decreasing the proportion of females (LOEC 100. μg/L (ZF), 320. μg/L (FHM)) and delaying completion of sexual differentiation; manifest as an increased incidence of ovotestis in the ZF (LOEC 100. μg/L) and as an increased number of fish with undifferentiated gonads in the FHM (LOEC 320. μg/L). However, while exposure to 320. μg/L prochloraz delayed maturation of the differentiated FHM testis, there was no such effect in the ZF. These results demonstrate that the different strategy of sexual differentiation in the ZF and FHM influences the profile of responses of their gonads to the masculinising effects of prochloraz, but does not affect their overall sensitivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.