Harfst And Associates

Ashland, OR, United States

Harfst And Associates

Ashland, OR, United States
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Harfst W.F.,Harfst And Associates
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2011

In general, most softeners are operated at a high regeneration level for three practical reasons: 1. a softener requires fewer regenerations: 2. effluent has less hardness leakage; and 3. salt is cheap. This condition, however, results in poor regeneration efficiency and maximum salt discharge into the environment. The softener regeneration efficiency can be improved by modifications to the brine system. This includes the following strategies: 1. Reduce the salt dosage to achieve at least 3,350 gr/lb of salt and regenerate tite softener more frequently. 2. Reclaim a portion of the used saltbrine for recycle back to the softener during the next regeneration. This is only applicable to softeners that must be operated in the high salt dosage mode. 3. Capture and purify the used salt brine by chemical precipitation, settling, filtration and neutralization to achieve zero discharge. Alternatively, contract with a service provider for portable exchange softener units. In all cases, because of the inherent low-cost of salt, adopting these conservation strategies will not necessarily lower the overall cost for producing soft water. But you will be doing your part to reduce salt discharge into the environment and thereby enhance and maintain the quality of our freshwater reservoirs.


Harfst W.F.,Harfst And Associates
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2011

The role of impurities in the selection and application of water treatment programs is discussed. With regard to dissolved gases, oxygen is the most objectionable from the standpoint of boiler feedwater supply, since this gas is the principle cause of internal pitting-type corrosion. The boiler operating pressure influences the selection and application of an internal treatment method. Boilers operated at low pressure tolerate more sludge than is the case at higher pressures because of the higher rates of heat transfer and ratings associated with higher pressures. Deposits that form on the heat transfer surfaces cause an increase in metal temperature, and eventually lead to failure. Excess sodium phosphate can concentrate is these films, giving rise to a condition known as phosphate hide out.


Harfst W.F.,Harfst And Associates
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2011

Water conservation projects start by conducting a water balance study. This indicates where and how water is used in the plant. It also provides detailed information of the water quality in each system. Since cooling water applications typicaliy represent the largest demand on fresh water supplies, it's best to seek our alternative sources for cooling rower makeup. This includes Project, boiler Slowdown, and treated wastewater. Likewise, one should verify that the cooling towers are operating at maximum cycles of concentration. Increasing eye les by softening the makeup offers the benefit of operatiog at higher cycles as compared to the limitations imposed by using hard, unsoftened makeup. This improves cooling tower efficiency by minimizing the volume of breed sent to drain. Finally, cooling tower bleed can be regenerated and recycled by chemical treatment methods such as lime/soda ash softening. pH adjustment, filtration, ultrafiltration, and RO- If this proves economically or logistically unfeasible, the tower bleed can often be used "as is" for wash or scrubber water applications. Assuming that the current trend of increased demand for fresh water supplies continues (and it will), all industrial plans will be faced sooner or later with the need to reduce fresh water withdrawals, maximize water reuse, minimize wastewater generation, and conrroi costs. The technology exists for acliieving these goals by the skillful analysis, synthesis and retrofit of industrial water-using nerworks.


Harfst W.F.,Harfst And Associates
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2011

Achieving maximum utility and life expectancy from a water distribution system requires an understanding of the problems water can cause and the various materi als of construction that are available to minimize or eliminate these problems. Working together, corrosion and design engineers can create a water distribution system for any application that will last for 50 to 100 years.


Harfst W.F.,Harfst And Associates
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2011

The use of soft water makeup for cooling lower operation offers several advantages over hard water makeup. Here is a list of some advantages: • Soft water eliminates mineral scale deposits for "bare metal" clean heat transfer surfaces. • The natural carbonate/bicarbonate buffer produccsa pH in the 9.2 to 9,6 range, which renders steel and other metals more passive and less prone to corrosion. • Soft water makeup reduces fresh water withdrawals, resulting in a significant savings in water and wastewater. • Operating the tower on soft water helps control the growth o f pathogenic organisms by maintaining the pH above the amplification range (pH > 9.2). • The purchase, storage, handling and feeding of chemical scale inhibitors and/or mineral acid is eliminated since soft water is non-scaling. Overall, the use of soft water for cooling tower makeup helps protect the natural environment, saves energy, reduces operating costs and extends the useful life of plant equipment.


Harfst W.F.,Harfst And Associates
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2012

Operating low- and medium-pressure boiler plants at maximum efficiency requires carefu1 control over the boiler water chemistry, This includes protecting the boiler from oxygen-pitting type corrosion, preventing scale deposits on heat transfer surfaces, and protecting the steam condensate system from corrosion. These goals arc best achieved by the application of basic water treatment chemicals such as:. • Sodium sulfite for oxygen scavenging. • Sodium phosphate for reaction with calcium hardness. • Sodium EDTA if a non-precipitating chemical program is desired. • Sodium hydroxide for reaction with magnesium hardness and to adjust boiler alkalinity. • Polymeric dispersants such as polyacrylate, polymethacrylate, and various co- and ter- polymers. • Neutralizing amines, including morpholine, DEAE, and cyelohexylamine. Copyright © 2012 Tall Oaks Publishing Inc.


Harfst W.F.,Harfst And Associates
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2012

Cathodic protection is a corrosion control method that is only effective in controlling corrosion in metallic structures that re in contact with an electrolyte. When corrosion is occurring in an electrolytic environment, current flows. The direction of current flow is from the area of the metal that corrodes through the electrolyte to the non-corroding area of the metal. The application of cathodic protection serves to stop the flow of corrosion current. When the potential of the cathode is equal to the potential of the anode, no current will flow and corrosion stops. The galvanic mode of cathodic protection depends upon the establishment of an intentional corrosion cell in the environment such as the structure to be protected becomes the cathode of the cell. The impressed current method of cathodic protection employs a direct electric current from an external source that is forced from a ground bed of anodes, through the electrolyte, onto the structure that is to be protected.


Harfst W.F.,Harfst And Associates
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2012

Monitoring the operation of a reverse osmosis system is essential requirement for the minimizing problems that adversely affect water quality and reduce the useful life of the membranes. Instrumentation plays an important role in providing the system operator with a means to continuously monitor the water quality and system operating performance. Equipment manufacturers offer a wide assortment of options for outfitting the RO with the required monitoring equipment. Membrane manufacturers publish tables of temperature correction factors that are used to normalize the permeate flow back to the standard 77°F design temperature. It is also advisable to record the totalized water consumption for both the feed water and reject. The performance of media filters upstream of the RO system are also affected by flow. An increase in salt passage is one indicator of the membrane condition.


Harfst W.F.,Harfst And Associates
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2012

Maintaining clean heat transfer surfaces in heat exchangers and evaporative condensers is critical to achieving maximum energy efficiency. Likewise, operating the cooling tower at maximum cycles of concentration conserves water and reduces waste. Therefore, a balance must be stuck between over-and-under-concentration of the impurities in the make-up water such that scale deposition is not an issue. Various guidelines and estimators can be used to ensure that problems caused by calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium phosphate, and silica deposits are prevented. Overall, this conserves water, minimizes chemical consumption, saves energy, reduces waste, and prolongs the useful life of plant equipment. Copyright © 2012 Tall Oaks Publishing Inc.


Harfst W.K.,Harfst And Associates
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2012

Steam quality and purity specifications are used as a guide in the production of a continuous supply of steam for a particular application. Utility steam specifications are intended to pro long the useful life of turbine drives and minimize unscheduled repairs. Culinary steam, clean steam, and pure steam specifications arc intended to protect public health by preventing contamination of our pharmaceuticals, food, humidified air, and surgical instruments. The specifications, guidelines, and recommendations discussed in this article are intended as a useful tool in achieving these important goals. Further details and assistance are available from technical documents and competent chemical and engineering consultants. COPYRIGHT © Tall Oaks Publishing, Inc.

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