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Zechman F.W.,California State University, Fresno | Verbruggen H.,Ghent University | Leliaert F.,Ghent University | Ashworth M.,University of Texas at Austin | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Phycology | Year: 2010

We provide molecular phylogenetic evidence that the obscure genera Palmophyllum Kütz. and Verdigellas D. L. Ballant. et J. N. Norris form a distinct and early diverging lineage of green algae. These palmelloid seaweeds generally persist in deep waters, where grazing pressure and competition for space are reduced. Their distinctness warrants recognition as a new order, the Palmophyllales. Although phylogenetic analyses of both the 18S rRNA gene and two chloroplast genes (atpB and rbcL) are in agreement with a deep-branching Palmophyllales, the genes are in conflict about its exact phylogenetic placement. Analysis of the nuclear ribosomal DNA allies the Palmophyllales with the prasinophyte genera Prasinococcus and Prasinoderma (Prasinococcales), while the plastid gene phylogeny placed Palmophyllum and Verdigellas as sister clade to all other Chlorophyta. © 2010 Phycological Society of America. Source

Raskoff K.A.,Monterey Peninsula College | Hopcroft R.R.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Kosobokova K.N.,RAS Shirshov Institute of Oceanology | Purcell J.E.,Western Washington University | Youngbluth M.,Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2010

In order to provide a baseline understanding of gelatinous zooplankton biodiversity and distribution in the rapidly changing Arctic Ocean, 12 stations were sampled across the Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge, and Chukchi Plateau with detailed deep-water ROV observations and multinet tows down to 3000 m. The complex, multi-origin water layers of the Arctic Ocean provided the backdrop for examining the vertical and horizontal distributions of the poorly understood meso and bathypelagic gelatinous taxa. Over 50 different gelatinous taxa were observed across the stations, with cnidarians being the most common group. Medusae accounted for 60% of all observations, siphonophores for 24%, larvaceans for 10%, ctenophores for 5%, and numerous interesting and rarer taxa constituted the remaining 1% of observations. Several new species were found and many major range extensions were observed. Both the vertical and horizontal distribution of species appear to be linked to water mass characteristics, as well as bottom topography and geographic location within the study area. Shallow slope and ridge areas around the Canada Basin and Chukchi Plateau appear to harbor substantially lower gelatinous zooplankton biomass and diversity than the deeper locations. Shallow stations not only show reduced abundance, but also different relative abundance of the major taxa, where the shallow water stations are dominated by large numbers of siphonophores and ctenophores, the deep stations are dominated by medusae. Taxonomic issues and ecological observations of several important species are discussed, aided by the live collection of many undamaged and fragile species. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Rehtanz M.,Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution | Rehtanz M.,University of Louisville | Rehtanz M.,New York University | Ghim S.-J.,University of Louisville | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2010

Genital epithelial tumors of Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus [Tt]) and Burmeister's porpoises (Phocoena spinipinnis) were formerly shown to be associated with papillomavirus (PV) infection. Papillomaviruses are highly prevalent viruses involved in the development of various tumor types in a wide range of animals, and so-called high-risk PVs contribute to malignant progression. In marine mammals, the incidence and prevalence of PV infection, transmission pathways, and persistence of infection are largely unknown. Using viruslike particles of bottlenose dolphin PV type 1 (TtPVl) as the antigen, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies were conducted to evaluate PV antibody prevalence in bottlenose dolphins. In total, sera obtained from 115 dolphins were examined. Fifty-one percent of captive dolphins (n = 18 of 35) and 90% of free-ranging dolphins (n = 72 of 80) were antibody positive. Higher ELISA reactivity was observed among males compared with females. Sexually immature dolphins appeared more likely to seroconvert with age. Besides determining their PV antibody prevalence, each animal was also assessed for the presence of orogenital tumors. Interestingly, the mean age of free-ranging dolphins with tumors (n=21) was 11.2 yr compared with 29.9 yr in captive dolphins with tumors (n=9). Results from the current study suggest PV infection in bottlenose dolphins is common, that the main route of PV transmission among them may be horizontal, and that orogenital neoplasia may develop in early life stages of certain freeranging bottlenose dolphins. © Wildlife Disease Association 2010. Source

Song H.Y.,University of Tokyo | Mabuchi K.,University of Tokyo | Satoh T.P.,Collection Center | Moore J.A.,Florida Atlantic University | And 5 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2014

Percomorpha, comprising about 60% of modern teleost fishes, has been described as the "(unresolved) bush at the top" of the tree, with its intrarelationships still being ambiguous owing to huge diversity (>. 15,000 species). Recent molecular phylogenetic studies based on extensive taxon and character sampling, however, have revealed a number of unexpected clades of Percomorpha, and one of which is composed of Syngnathoidei (seahorses, pipefishes, and their relatives) plus several groups distributed across three different orders. To circumscribe the clade more definitely, we sampled several candidate taxa with reference to the previous studies and newly determined whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences for 16 percomorph species across syngnathoids, dactylopterids, and their putatively closely-related fishes (Mullidae, Callionymoidei, Malacanthidae). Unambiguously aligned sequences (13,872. bp) from those 16 species plus 78 percomorphs and two outgroups (total 96 species) were subjected to partitioned Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The resulting trees revealed a highly supported clade comprising seven families in Syngnathoidei (Gasterosteiformes), Dactylopteridae (Scorpaeniformes), Mullidae in Percoidei and two families in Callionymoidei (Perciformes). We herein proposed to call this clade "Syngnathiformes" following the latest nuclear DNA studies with some revisions on the included families. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ortman B.D.,University of Connecticut | Bucklin A.,University of Connecticut | Pages F.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | Youngbluth M.,Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2010

The Medusozoa are a clade within the Cnidaria comprising the classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Cubozoa. Identification of medusozoan species is challenging, even for taxonomic experts, due to their fragile forms and complex, morphologically-distinct life history stages. In this study 231 sequences for a portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (mtCOI) gene were obtained from 95 species of Medusozoans including; 84 hydrozoans (61 siphonophores, eight anthomedusae, four leptomedusae, seven trachymedusae, and four narcomedusae), 10 scyphozoans (three coronatae, four semaeostomae, two rhizostomae, and one stauromedusae), and one cubozoan. This region of mtCOI has been used as a DNA barcode (i.e., a molecular character for species recognition and discrimination) for a diverse array of taxa, including some Cnidaria. Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) genetic distances between sequence variants within species ranged from 0 to 0.057 (mean 0.013). Within the 13 genera for which multiple species were available, K2P distance between congeneric species ranged from 0.056 to 0.381. A cluster diagram generated by Neighbor Joining (NJ) using K2P distances reliably clustered all barcodes of the same species with ≥99% bootstrap support, ensuring accurate identification of species. Intra- and inter-specific variation of the mtCOI gene for the Medusozoa are appropriate for this gene to be used as a DNA barcode for species-level identification, but not for phylogenetic analysis or taxonomic classification of unknown sequences at higher taxonomic levels. This study provides a set of molecular tools that can be used to address questions of speciation, biodiversity, life-history, and population boundaries in the Medusozoa. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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