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Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

Haramaya University is one of the oldest universities in Ethiopia. It is located 5 km from haramaya, a town in the East Hararghe Zone, about 17 kilometers from the city of Harar and 40 kilometers from Dire Dawa.The university was founded with the help of Oklahoma State University , accepting its first students in 1954, and the new campus was opened in January 1958 by Emperor Haile Selassie. OSU's participation set a record for American technical assistance programs, with 60 professionals supporting this project at one time, but due to the lack of qualified educators this required a commitment to his endeavor from the University for several years; this degree of commitment was due to the personal support of the former OSU president, Henry G. Bennett.Haramaya University was promoted from a college within Addis Ababa University on May 27, 1985 to an independent university. For many years the university had been limited to only an agricultural curriculum, but in 1996 the university was given permission to open other faculties and departments. Wikipedia.

Reda A.A.,Haramaya University | Biadgilign S.,Jimma University
AIDS Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Background. There are only a few comprehensive studies of adherence to ART and its challenges in Africa. This paper aims to assess the evidence on the challenges and prospects of ART adherence in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. The authors reviewed original and review articles involving HIV-positive individuals that measured adherence to ART and its predictors in the past decade. Findings. Against expectations, sub-Saharan Africa patients have similar or higher adherence levels compared to those of developed countries. The challenges to ART adherence include factors related to patients and their families, socioeconomic factors, medication, and healthcare systems. Conclusion. Despite good adherence and program-related findings, antiretroviral treatment is challenged by a range of hierarchical and interrelated factors. There is substantial room for improvement of ART programs in sub-Sahara African countries. © 2012 Ayalu A. Reda and Sibhatu Biadgilign. Source

Resistance to antibiotics has grave consequences leading to treatment failure and increased health care costs. This public health risk has become a global problem with some countries like Ethiopia seriously affected. Members of the family enterobacteriaceae, including E. coli, are among the most important human pathogens accounting for the majority of bacterial strains isolated from clinical patient samples. Moreover, there is insufficient data regarding Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence among Escherichia coli strains from Ethiopia. Thus, the objective was to determine the production of ESBL among clinical isolates and assess the in vitro susceptibility of the E. coli to the routinely used selected antibiotics. We collected a total of 359 clinical specimens (56 urine, 116 sputum, 72 stool and 15 wound swabs) from in- and outpatients at Jimma University Specialised Hospital, Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. E. coli was isolated from 67 (18.66%) clinical specimens, of which 24 (36%) isolates were ESBL producers. The resistance pattern to the tested antibiotics was: penicillin (97%), amoxacillin and ampicillin (86.6% each), tetracycline (73.1%), amoxacillin-clavulanate (70.1%), co-trimoxazole (56.7%), chloramphenicol (35.8%), ciprofloxacine (20.9%), norfloxacine (16.4%), cefotaxime (9%), ceftazidime (6%), gentamicin (3%). All the isolates tested showed resistance to two or more drugs, and were considered to be multi-drug resistant. A higher rate (46%) of ESBL production and multi-drug resistance was seen among isolates from inpatients as compared to outpatients (33%) at the hospital. Source

Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had received Oral Rehydration Therapy while the controls were 253 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had not received Oral Rehydration Therapy. The cases and the controls were compared to find out the factors that were associated with the utilization of Oral Rehydration Therapy. The study revealed that caregivers' previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI = 2.63-6.22), seeking advice or treatment from health facilities, (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI = 2.06-5.11) and knowledge of Oral Rehydration Therapy (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.97-4.85) were found to be the positive determinants of Oral Rehydration Therapy use. Perception of teething as a cause of diarrhea was negatively associated with the utilization of Oral rehydration Therapy (AOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.98). Health education should be strengthened on the benefit, preparation, early initiation of Oral Rehydration Therapy and the causes of diarrhea. Attention should be given to those who do not have previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use and have less frequent contacts with the health facilities. Source

Background: The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) is a widely used instrument for evaluating psychological distress from anxiety and depression. HADS has not yet been validated in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Amharic (Ethiopian language) version of HADs among HIV infected patients. Methods: The translated scale was administered to 302 HIV/AIDS patients on follow up for and taking anti-retroviral treatment. Consistency assessment was conducted using Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity was examined using principal components analysis (PCA). Parallel analysis, Kaiser's criterion and the scree test were used for factor extraction. Results: The internal consistency was 0.78 for the anxiety, 0.76 for depression subscales and 0.87 for the full scale of HADS. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 80%, 86%, and 84% for the anxiety and depression subscales, and total score respectively. PCA revealed a one dimensional scale. Conclusion: This preliminary validation study of the Ethiopian version of the HADs indicates that it has promising acceptability, reliability and validity. The adopted scale has a single underlying dimension as indicated by Razavi's model. The HADS can be used to examine psychological distress in HIV infected patients. Findings are discussed and recommendations made. © 2011 Ayalu Aklilu Reda. Source

Beyene F.,Haramaya University
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2015

This paper explores incentives and challenges in community-based rangeland management. Results from three case studies indicate variability in herders' motivation to contribute to the conservation and management of rangeland resources. The basic reason behind the failure to ensure sustained collective action largely lies in the little effort made by the intervening agencies in creating awareness on the long-term consequences of climate change and biodiversity loss. In some villages, observation of positive results maintained the motivation to conserve the range, while in others, the removal of external incentives seems to discourage continuity of management practices. Resource users put greater emphasis on short-term economic gains that undermines the prospect to see long-term impacts of the present action, refuting the theoretical argument that the absence of alternative livelihoods would force individuals to place emphasis on the possibility to generate income streams from a resource in the longer term. This implies that designing institutions for rangeland management contributes to its sustainable use. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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