Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

Haramaya University is one of the oldest universities in Ethiopia. It is located 5 km from haramaya, a town in the East Hararghe Zone, about 17 kilometers from the city of Harar and 40 kilometers from Dire Dawa.The university was founded with the help of Oklahoma State University , accepting its first students in 1954, and the new campus was opened in January 1958 by Emperor Haile Selassie. OSU's participation set a record for American technical assistance programs, with 60 professionals supporting this project at one time, but due to the lack of qualified educators this required a commitment to his endeavor from the University for several years; this degree of commitment was due to the personal support of the former OSU president, Henry G. Bennett.Haramaya University was promoted from a college within Addis Ababa University on May 27, 1985 to an independent university. For many years the university had been limited to only an agricultural curriculum, but in 1996 the university was given permission to open other faculties and departments. Wikipedia.

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Reda A.A.,Haramaya University | Biadgilign S.,Jimma University
AIDS Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Background. There are only a few comprehensive studies of adherence to ART and its challenges in Africa. This paper aims to assess the evidence on the challenges and prospects of ART adherence in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. The authors reviewed original and review articles involving HIV-positive individuals that measured adherence to ART and its predictors in the past decade. Findings. Against expectations, sub-Saharan Africa patients have similar or higher adherence levels compared to those of developed countries. The challenges to ART adherence include factors related to patients and their families, socioeconomic factors, medication, and healthcare systems. Conclusion. Despite good adherence and program-related findings, antiretroviral treatment is challenged by a range of hierarchical and interrelated factors. There is substantial room for improvement of ART programs in sub-Sahara African countries. © 2012 Ayalu A. Reda and Sibhatu Biadgilign.

Dingeta T.,Haramaya University
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2012

As part of the young age bracket, undergraduate university students are exposed to a range of risky behaviors including HIV/AIDS. Given the paucity of data among the risk behaviors of African university students, this study was conducted to examine the sexual risk behaviors of this group in Ethiopia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and sexual risk behavior characteristics among 1,286 undergraduate students at Haramaya University, Ethiopia from March to April, 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). About 355 (28%; 95% CI 25.5-30.5) students reported to have had sexual intercourse at least once. More proportion of male students ever had sex compared to females (OR 4.8; 95% CI 3.4-6.8, p<0.001). One fifth (22.8%) of these students had their sexual debut after they joined university. About six percent of students with sexual experience reported having had intercourse with same-sex partners. Half of the males with sexual experience had intercourse with a commercial sex worker. About 60% of students reported to have used a condom rarely. Our findings indicate that there is a high level of sexual risk behavior among the study population. Significant proportion of students were sexually active, the majority started sexual intercourse before they joined university. We recommend awareness campaigns and interventions on sexual and reproductive health issues for high school and university students in Ethiopia.

Resistance to antibiotics has grave consequences leading to treatment failure and increased health care costs. This public health risk has become a global problem with some countries like Ethiopia seriously affected. Members of the family enterobacteriaceae, including E. coli, are among the most important human pathogens accounting for the majority of bacterial strains isolated from clinical patient samples. Moreover, there is insufficient data regarding Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence among Escherichia coli strains from Ethiopia. Thus, the objective was to determine the production of ESBL among clinical isolates and assess the in vitro susceptibility of the E. coli to the routinely used selected antibiotics. We collected a total of 359 clinical specimens (56 urine, 116 sputum, 72 stool and 15 wound swabs) from in- and outpatients at Jimma University Specialised Hospital, Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. E. coli was isolated from 67 (18.66%) clinical specimens, of which 24 (36%) isolates were ESBL producers. The resistance pattern to the tested antibiotics was: penicillin (97%), amoxacillin and ampicillin (86.6% each), tetracycline (73.1%), amoxacillin-clavulanate (70.1%), co-trimoxazole (56.7%), chloramphenicol (35.8%), ciprofloxacine (20.9%), norfloxacine (16.4%), cefotaxime (9%), ceftazidime (6%), gentamicin (3%). All the isolates tested showed resistance to two or more drugs, and were considered to be multi-drug resistant. A higher rate (46%) of ESBL production and multi-drug resistance was seen among isolates from inpatients as compared to outpatients (33%) at the hospital.

Beyene F.,Haramaya University
Land Use Policy | Year: 2010

This paper examines the effects of rangeland enclosure on herders' livelihoods and property rights. The analysis is based on the household survey and focus group discussions among pastoral and agropastoral households (from three administrative districts in eastern Ethiopia) who have practiced enclosure and who have been affected by practices of others. Such an examination helps anticipate whether enclosure practice assists in attaining income security and ensuring household welfare by supporting livestock development. Results have shown that expansion of enclosure leads to the emergence of incompatible demands (conflict of interest) over the resource and unstable property rights to the grazing commons. Though private benefits from enclosure produce an incentive for households to practice it, its expansion does not generally increase the welfare of (agro-) pastoral community in the longer-term. Hence, land use policies that favor private use of the rangeland, using land enclosure as an entry point, can potentially harm pastoral livelihoods rather than supporting sustainable pastoral development. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had received Oral Rehydration Therapy while the controls were 253 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had not received Oral Rehydration Therapy. The cases and the controls were compared to find out the factors that were associated with the utilization of Oral Rehydration Therapy. The study revealed that caregivers' previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI = 2.63-6.22), seeking advice or treatment from health facilities, (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI = 2.06-5.11) and knowledge of Oral Rehydration Therapy (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.97-4.85) were found to be the positive determinants of Oral Rehydration Therapy use. Perception of teething as a cause of diarrhea was negatively associated with the utilization of Oral rehydration Therapy (AOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.98). Health education should be strengthened on the benefit, preparation, early initiation of Oral Rehydration Therapy and the causes of diarrhea. Attention should be given to those who do not have previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use and have less frequent contacts with the health facilities.

Background: The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) is a widely used instrument for evaluating psychological distress from anxiety and depression. HADS has not yet been validated in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Amharic (Ethiopian language) version of HADs among HIV infected patients. Methods: The translated scale was administered to 302 HIV/AIDS patients on follow up for and taking anti-retroviral treatment. Consistency assessment was conducted using Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity was examined using principal components analysis (PCA). Parallel analysis, Kaiser's criterion and the scree test were used for factor extraction. Results: The internal consistency was 0.78 for the anxiety, 0.76 for depression subscales and 0.87 for the full scale of HADS. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 80%, 86%, and 84% for the anxiety and depression subscales, and total score respectively. PCA revealed a one dimensional scale. Conclusion: This preliminary validation study of the Ethiopian version of the HADs indicates that it has promising acceptability, reliability and validity. The adopted scale has a single underlying dimension as indicated by Razavi's model. The HADS can be used to examine psychological distress in HIV infected patients. Findings are discussed and recommendations made. © 2011 Ayalu Aklilu Reda.

Singh S.,Haramaya University | Singh T.N.,Haramaya University
Phytochemistry Reviews | Year: 2013

Guttation is one of the most conspicuous visible phenomena in plants occurring in a wide range of plants. The guttation fluids, though look clear and translucent, carry a number of organic and inorganic constituents. The organic component may include sugars, amino acids, general proteins, antimicrobial phylloplane proteins, transport proteins for transporting sucrose, purine and cytokinins, toxic elements etc. and enzymes such as peroxidases, dehydrogenases, ATPases, in addition to mRNA, ATP, reductants and other important ingredients of plant life. Guttation fluids also contain a number of natural plant hormones such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid etc., apart from several vitamins. Recent discoveries have revealed the presence of a number of salts, ions, nutrients and macromolecules in guttation fluid playing significant role in enhancing disease resistance, tolerance to toxic elements, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production and economic yield of agricultural crops. In the light of aforementioned discoveries in guttation transgenic plants have been created to serve as bio-factories for producing various kinds of phytochemicals of immense agricultural, pharmaceutical, nutriceutical, therapeutic, cosmeceutic and commercial significance impacting food productivity and human health adding happiness to life. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Beyene F.,Haramaya University
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2015

This paper explores incentives and challenges in community-based rangeland management. Results from three case studies indicate variability in herders' motivation to contribute to the conservation and management of rangeland resources. The basic reason behind the failure to ensure sustained collective action largely lies in the little effort made by the intervening agencies in creating awareness on the long-term consequences of climate change and biodiversity loss. In some villages, observation of positive results maintained the motivation to conserve the range, while in others, the removal of external incentives seems to discourage continuity of management practices. Resource users put greater emphasis on short-term economic gains that undermines the prospect to see long-term impacts of the present action, refuting the theoretical argument that the absence of alternative livelihoods would force individuals to place emphasis on the possibility to generate income streams from a resource in the longer term. This implies that designing institutions for rangeland management contributes to its sustainable use. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dinka M.O.,Haramaya University
Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management | Year: 2012

This study attempted to estimate the extent of the expansion of the area of Lake Basaka over the past 50years (1960 to 2010), using LANDSAT images, field observations, local information and topographic maps. The analysis revealed that the lake has exhibited a dramatic expansion over the past five decades. An increase in the lake water level by 7.6m over this period resulted in flooding about 45.8km2 of surrounding areas and an incremental lake volume of about 280Mm3. About 70% of the lake expansion was observed in the period between the 1970s and 1990s. This phenomenon coincides with the periods of remarkable land use/cover changes in the region. Furthermore, the beginning of the lake expansion coincided with the introduction of irrigated agriculture in the region, and construction of Koka Dam in the mid-1960s in the upper Awash River Basin. This study suggests that the observed expansion trend, if it continues unabated, could result in certain socio-economic and environmental consequences in the region in particular, and to Ethiopia in general. Groundwater inundation or salty water intrusion, for example, might occur in the area in the near future, thereby affecting the sustainability of regional irrigated agriculture. The lake has the potential to inundate the surrounding region (Matahara Sugar Estate; towns of Fantalle and Matahara) and might connect with the Awash River during the next 10-15years. This would affect downstream irrigation developments in the Awash Basin and the livelihoods of people that depend on the basin's water resources. The overall findings of this study emphasize the need to adopt mitigation measures before the lake expansion results in irreversible damage to the region or the basin. © 2012 The Author. Journal compilation © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Background: Using the Directly Observed Treatment-Short course (DOTS) program the World Health Organization's global target was to detect 70% of new sputum-smear positive PTB cases. Smear positive PTB cases are more infectious than the smear negative cases. The TB case detection rate remains very low in Ethiopia, but there are increases in smear-negative PTB diagnosis which could be attributed to several factors including poor quality of sputum smear-microscopy. Methods. A five years retrospective record review of data between September, 2007 and August, 2012 and an in-depth assessment of AFB staining practices of sputum smear using a standard checklist were made. The proportion of smear positive cases relative to overall Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) screened was determined over a five year period to indicate the overall prevalence and the trend. Odds ratio with 95 percent confidence interval was calculated for categorical variables using multivariate Logistic Regression model to assess the strength of association. Result: A total of 1266 individuals' data were reviewed. The majority of the study participants were male, 704 (55.6%), and rural residents, 690 (54.5%). The overall prevalence rate of smear positive PTB was 21.6%. Age categories between 15-24 and 25-34 years were independent predictors of smear positive PTB with adjusted odds ratio of 2.246 [95% CI (1.098-4.597)] and 2.267 [95% CI (1.107-4.642)], respectively. More males were affected by PTB than females with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.426 [95% CI (1.083-1.879)]. An in-depth interview with the respective laboratory chiefs showed that quality control measures for sputum smear microscopy were used at different levels of the testing activities; however, equipment function verification as a quality control measure was not accomplished regularly in all of the study hospital laboratories. Conclusion: The smear positive PTB case detection rate indicated in this study is significantly lower than the countries which met the 70% target of the World Health Organization. Lack of feedback mechanisms in the External Quality Assurance schemes of sputum smear microscopy render the opportunity for improvement difficult; Serial sputum examination showed a considerable rate of positivity in the second sputum sample when compared with the others. © 2014 Mekonnen; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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