Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

Haramaya University is one of the oldest universities in Ethiopia. It is located 5 km from haramaya, a town in the East Hararghe Zone, about 17 kilometers from the city of Harar and 40 kilometers from Dire Dawa.The university was founded with the help of Oklahoma State University , accepting its first students in 1954, and the new campus was opened in January 1958 by Emperor Haile Selassie. OSU's participation set a record for American technical assistance programs, with 60 professionals supporting this project at one time, but due to the lack of qualified educators this required a commitment to his endeavor from the University for several years; this degree of commitment was due to the personal support of the former OSU president, Henry G. Bennett.Haramaya University was promoted from a college within Addis Ababa University on May 27, 1985 to an independent university. For many years the university had been limited to only an agricultural curriculum, but in 1996 the university was given permission to open other faculties and departments. Wikipedia.

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Based on the sustainable development goals, the United Nations plans to achieve equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and to end open defecation by 2030. In Ethiopia, 60% to 80% of health problems are due to communicable diseases attributable to unsafe water supply, unhygienic and unsanitary waste management, which are directly linked to the practice of open defecation. This study has aimed at assessing the implementation of community-led total sanitation and hygiene (CLTSH) and associated factors. A community-based crosssectional study design involving 420 of the 7, 225 households found in Diretiyara district was conducted in June 2014. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Using Logistic Regressions, bivariate and multivariate analyses were computed. This study showed that 66% of the respondents have knowledge of CLTSH. Eighty-nine percent of the respondents have latrine, of which 78% were constructed after the introduction of CLTSH. Eleven percent of the respondents reported to have defected in the open field and 15% of them reported that they had been recently exposed to diarrhea diseases. The occurrence of diarrheal disease was significantly associated with the extent of latrine ownership [AOR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.00, 6.12]. Attitude and perception parameters were significantly associated with consistent latrine utilization. Respondents who agreed that "Open defecation is preferred due to the unpleasant smell and heat from the Latrine" [COR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.34, 0.99] were 58% less likely to use the latrine consistently. In conclusion, CLTSH has increased the extent of latrine ownership and decreased practice of open defecation, and yet, intermittent latrine use and poor hygienic practice were reported. Although some fundamental misconceptions were reported, the majority of the respondents have accepted CLTSH approach as a means to ending open defecation in their village. Health extension workers and local authorities should give emphasis to achieving sustainable behavioral change on improved sanitation and good hygiene practices. © 2017 Roba Argaw Tessema. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

The objective of this study is to analyse the phytodiversity, distribution, herb biomass and physico-chemical conditions of the vegetation system in the context of communal continuous open grazing and enclosed grazing management practices in the Harishin rangelands of Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 58 herbaceous species and 11 woody species were recorded in the study area. Analysis of Importance Value Index for two management practices was represented by different combinations of species with varied dominance. The herbs' diversity-dominance curve revealed a lognormal distribution in both managements practices. The overview of distribution patterns for most of the species layer showed contiguous growth and a clumped distribution pattern. Species diversity, richness, herb biomass, basal cover and soil physico-chemical attributes showed a distinct separation in relation to grazing management practices. Based on the findings, one can conclude that the establishment of enclosures has a positive impact in restoring rangeland vegetation diversity, distribution, in increasing herb productivity and in boosting soil fertility. © 2017 by the author.

Vijai Basker G.,Haramaya University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

Khat goes by numerous names: Khat, qat, chat, qaadka, kus-es-salahin miraa, tohai, tschat, Abyssinian tea, African tea, African salad, and brown cows (in tablet form). Cathinone, one of khat's psychoactive chemicals, affects the central nervous system like a mild amphetamine. This review summarizes the action, constituents and hazards of khat chewing. There is a major association between khat chewing and the health hazards like diminished sexual performance, HIV infection, sexual violence, elevated diastolic blood pressure, affecting urinary and digestive system, periodontitis, liver injury, psychiatric problems, ophthalmological problems. Various complex factors underlie the use of khat. Frustration, poverty and/or dislocation make people susceptible to khat. The reason which even the government failed to protect the public from the usage of khat is because, the use of Khat is an established cultural tradition for many social situations in the areas of primary cultivation, East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Hence strong measures need to be taken for creating a greater awareness among the most common users as poor peoples, taxi and auto drivers, school students, college students, and general public.

This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate correlation between milk suckled and growth of calves of Ogaden cattle managed in Beef farm at Harmaya University, eastern Ethiopia. Data was collected by a method of weight-suckle-weight once in a week from 269 calves born from 1994 to 2004. Weight of calves at birth, first, third and sixth months of age were 21.5 ± 3.3, 36.3 ± 4.4, 57.4 ± 11.0 and 91.7 ± 14.7 kg (mean ± SD). The daily weight gain of calves to first, third and six months of age were 0.5 ± 0.1, 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.4 ± 0.1 kg day-1, respectively. The amount of milk suckled to first, third and six months of age were 5.0 ± 1.2, 4.6 ± 1.1 and 2.7 ± 0.7 kg day-1. The milk conversion efficiency to a kg body weight at first and third months of age was 10.2 ± 2.5 and 11.6 ± 2.9, respectively. Correlation between birth weight and daily milk suckled at one, three and six months of age were 0.34 (P< 0.001), 0.22 (P< 0.001) and 0.26 (P<0.05), respectively. The correlation between weight (1 and 3 months) and daily milk suckled at first and third months of age were positive with correlation value of 0.45 (P< 0.001) and 0.43 (P< 0.001), respectively. Correlation between weight change (1 and 3 months) and daily milk suckled at first and third months of age were 0.41 (P< 0.001) and 0.38 (P< 0.001), respectively. Positive association was observed between daily weigh gain and daily milk suckled at first and third months of age with correlation value of 0.44 (P< 0.001) and 0.29 (P< 0.001), respectively. Weight at three months was significantly correlated (P< 0.001) to weight at four, five and six months of age with correlation value of 0.65, 0.63 and 0.53, respectively. The significant correlation between milk suckled and weight at three months; and weight at three months and weight at weaning indicate significant role of milk in determining weaning weight of Ogaden cattle. © 2013 Mummed; licensee Springer.

Reda A.A.,Haramaya University | Biadgilign S.,Jimma University
AIDS Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Background. There are only a few comprehensive studies of adherence to ART and its challenges in Africa. This paper aims to assess the evidence on the challenges and prospects of ART adherence in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. The authors reviewed original and review articles involving HIV-positive individuals that measured adherence to ART and its predictors in the past decade. Findings. Against expectations, sub-Saharan Africa patients have similar or higher adherence levels compared to those of developed countries. The challenges to ART adherence include factors related to patients and their families, socioeconomic factors, medication, and healthcare systems. Conclusion. Despite good adherence and program-related findings, antiretroviral treatment is challenged by a range of hierarchical and interrelated factors. There is substantial room for improvement of ART programs in sub-Sahara African countries. © 2012 Ayalu A. Reda and Sibhatu Biadgilign.

Beyene F.,Haramaya University
Land Use Policy | Year: 2010

This paper examines the effects of rangeland enclosure on herders' livelihoods and property rights. The analysis is based on the household survey and focus group discussions among pastoral and agropastoral households (from three administrative districts in eastern Ethiopia) who have practiced enclosure and who have been affected by practices of others. Such an examination helps anticipate whether enclosure practice assists in attaining income security and ensuring household welfare by supporting livestock development. Results have shown that expansion of enclosure leads to the emergence of incompatible demands (conflict of interest) over the resource and unstable property rights to the grazing commons. Though private benefits from enclosure produce an incentive for households to practice it, its expansion does not generally increase the welfare of (agro-) pastoral community in the longer-term. Hence, land use policies that favor private use of the rangeland, using land enclosure as an entry point, can potentially harm pastoral livelihoods rather than supporting sustainable pastoral development. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had received Oral Rehydration Therapy while the controls were 253 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had not received Oral Rehydration Therapy. The cases and the controls were compared to find out the factors that were associated with the utilization of Oral Rehydration Therapy. The study revealed that caregivers' previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI = 2.63-6.22), seeking advice or treatment from health facilities, (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI = 2.06-5.11) and knowledge of Oral Rehydration Therapy (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.97-4.85) were found to be the positive determinants of Oral Rehydration Therapy use. Perception of teething as a cause of diarrhea was negatively associated with the utilization of Oral rehydration Therapy (AOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.98). Health education should be strengthened on the benefit, preparation, early initiation of Oral Rehydration Therapy and the causes of diarrhea. Attention should be given to those who do not have previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use and have less frequent contacts with the health facilities.

Background: The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) is a widely used instrument for evaluating psychological distress from anxiety and depression. HADS has not yet been validated in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Amharic (Ethiopian language) version of HADs among HIV infected patients. Methods: The translated scale was administered to 302 HIV/AIDS patients on follow up for and taking anti-retroviral treatment. Consistency assessment was conducted using Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity was examined using principal components analysis (PCA). Parallel analysis, Kaiser's criterion and the scree test were used for factor extraction. Results: The internal consistency was 0.78 for the anxiety, 0.76 for depression subscales and 0.87 for the full scale of HADS. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 80%, 86%, and 84% for the anxiety and depression subscales, and total score respectively. PCA revealed a one dimensional scale. Conclusion: This preliminary validation study of the Ethiopian version of the HADs indicates that it has promising acceptability, reliability and validity. The adopted scale has a single underlying dimension as indicated by Razavi's model. The HADS can be used to examine psychological distress in HIV infected patients. Findings are discussed and recommendations made. © 2011 Ayalu Aklilu Reda.

Beyene F.,Haramaya University
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2015

This paper explores incentives and challenges in community-based rangeland management. Results from three case studies indicate variability in herders' motivation to contribute to the conservation and management of rangeland resources. The basic reason behind the failure to ensure sustained collective action largely lies in the little effort made by the intervening agencies in creating awareness on the long-term consequences of climate change and biodiversity loss. In some villages, observation of positive results maintained the motivation to conserve the range, while in others, the removal of external incentives seems to discourage continuity of management practices. Resource users put greater emphasis on short-term economic gains that undermines the prospect to see long-term impacts of the present action, refuting the theoretical argument that the absence of alternative livelihoods would force individuals to place emphasis on the possibility to generate income streams from a resource in the longer term. This implies that designing institutions for rangeland management contributes to its sustainable use. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dinka M.O.,Haramaya University
Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management | Year: 2012

This study attempted to estimate the extent of the expansion of the area of Lake Basaka over the past 50years (1960 to 2010), using LANDSAT images, field observations, local information and topographic maps. The analysis revealed that the lake has exhibited a dramatic expansion over the past five decades. An increase in the lake water level by 7.6m over this period resulted in flooding about 45.8km2 of surrounding areas and an incremental lake volume of about 280Mm3. About 70% of the lake expansion was observed in the period between the 1970s and 1990s. This phenomenon coincides with the periods of remarkable land use/cover changes in the region. Furthermore, the beginning of the lake expansion coincided with the introduction of irrigated agriculture in the region, and construction of Koka Dam in the mid-1960s in the upper Awash River Basin. This study suggests that the observed expansion trend, if it continues unabated, could result in certain socio-economic and environmental consequences in the region in particular, and to Ethiopia in general. Groundwater inundation or salty water intrusion, for example, might occur in the area in the near future, thereby affecting the sustainability of regional irrigated agriculture. The lake has the potential to inundate the surrounding region (Matahara Sugar Estate; towns of Fantalle and Matahara) and might connect with the Awash River during the next 10-15years. This would affect downstream irrigation developments in the Awash Basin and the livelihoods of people that depend on the basin's water resources. The overall findings of this study emphasize the need to adopt mitigation measures before the lake expansion results in irreversible damage to the region or the basin. © 2012 The Author. Journal compilation © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

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