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News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

According to India LLDPE Market Study,2011-2025, report studies the market size and share of various applications of the LLDPE market in India during 2011-2025. In the study, the market has been categorized into four broader applications that includes Butene film, higher-alpha-olefin (HAO) film, roto moulding, high flow and extrusion coating, wherein Butene film is the dominating application of LLDPE and HAO film registered as the fastest growing application during 2016-2025. The market dynamics section of the report elaborates the factors that are driving the market as well as the challenges inhibiting growth. The research study also includes insights of the key market trends, a detailed analysis of the changing competitive landscape, and revenue forecasts for each segment and sub-segment. In addition, report also provides customers analysis including current suppliers, procurement prices & quantity being purchased annually. All this information is provided to assist the established market players and new entrants in taking their strategic decisions, thereby aiding them in strengthening their market position in a highly competitive LLDPE market in India. India LLDPE Market Study, 2011-2025 report elaborates the following aspects of LLDPE market in India: - India LLDPE Market Size, Share & Forecast - Segmental Analysis - By Application (Butene Film, higher-alpha-olefin (HAO) Film, roto moulding, High Flow and extrusion coating); By Region (Western Region, Southern Region, Eastern Region, and Northern Region); By Company (Reliance Industries Limited (RIL), Gas Authority of India Limited (Gail), Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL), Haldia Petrochemicals Limited (HPL)) - Market Attractiveness Index Analysis - Competitive Landscape - Leading Customer Analysis For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/s2xjgl/india_lldpe Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager press@researchandmarkets.com For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900 U.S. Fax: 646-607-1907 Fax (outside U.S.): +353-1-481-1716 To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/india-lldpe-market-analysis--forecasts-report-2011-2025---research-and-markets-300453198.html

News Article | December 23, 2015
Site: www.nature.com

Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonium to nitrate is divided into two subsequent reactions: ammonium oxidation to nitrite (equation (1)) and nitrite oxidation to nitrate (equation (2)). These two reactions are catalysed by physiologically distinct clades of microorganisms. Even though the existence of a single microorganism capable of oxidizing ammonium to nitrate (equation (3)) was not previously reported, it was proposed that such a microorganism could have a competitive advantage in biofilms and other microbial aggregates with low substrate concentrations3. In this study, to characterize the microorganisms responsible for nitrogen transformations in an ammonium-oxidizing biofilm, we sampled the anaerobic compartment of a trickling filter connected to a recirculation aquaculture system4 with an ammonium effluent of less than 100 μM. To enrich for the N-cycling community, a bioreactor was inoculated and supplied with low concentrations of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate under hypoxic conditions (≤3.1 μM O ). Within 12 months, we obtained a stable enrichment culture that efficiently removed ammonium and nitrite from the medium (Extended Data Fig. 1). The culture showed anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) activity (Fig. 1a), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that anammox organisms of the genus Brocadia constituted approximately 45% of all FISH-detectable bacteria. Surprisingly, Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria accounted for approximately 15% of the community and co-occurred with the Brocadia species in flocs (Fig. 2a). This tight clustering with anammox bacteria was unexpected as both microorganisms require nitrite for growth. Together with the presence of Nitrospira at very low oxygen concentrations, this indicated that there could be a functional link between these organisms. To determine the function of Nitrospira in the community, we extracted and sequenced total DNA from the enrichment culture biomass. In total 4.95 gigabase pairs of trimmed metagenomic sequence were obtained and used for de novo assembly. By differential coverage and sequence composition-based binning5 it was possible to extract high-quality draft genomes of two Nitrospira species. The two strains had genomic pairwise average nucleotide identities (ANI)6 of 75% and thus clearly represented different species (Nitrospira sp.1 and sp.2, Extended Data Fig. 2 and Extended Data Table 1). Surprisingly, both genomes contained the full set of AMO and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (HAO) genes for ammonia oxidation, in addition to the nitrite oxidoreductase (NXR) subunits necessary for nitrite oxidation in Nitrospira7. In both species all these genes were localized on a single contiguous genomic fragment, along with general housekeeping genes that allowed reliable phylogenetic assignment. Consequently, these Nitrospira species had the genetic potential for the complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate. No AMO of canonical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea could be detected in the trimmed metagenomic reads or by amoA-specific PCR8, 9 on DNA extracted from reactor biomass, and no other indications for the presence of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms were found in the metagenome or by FISH analyses. The AMO structural genes (amoCAB) of both Nitrospira species, along with the putative additional AMO subunits amoEDD210, 11, formed one gene cluster with haoAB-cycAB (encoding HAO, the putative membrane anchor protein HaoB, electron transfer protein cytochrome c and quinone reducing cytochrome c , respectively)12 and showed highest similarities to their counterparts in betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (60% average amino acid identity to the Nitrosomonas europaea genes; Fig. 3 and Supplementary Table 1). The same genomic region also contained genes for copper and haem transport, cytochrome c biosynthesis, and iron storage. These accessory genes were highly conserved in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria but not in other Nitrospira7, 13, indicating their involvement in AMO and HAO biosynthesis or activation. Nitrospira sp.1 encoded three discrete amoC genes, one of which was clustered with a second, almost identical copy of amoA (97.7% amino acid identity). Nitrospira sp.2 lacked the second amoA, but contained four additional amoC and a second haoA gene (Supplementary Table 1). Unlike other Nitrospira7, 13, both species lacked enzymes for assimilatory nitrite reduction, indicating adaptation to ammonium-containing habitats. For ammonium uptake, they encoded low-affinity Rh-type transporters most closely related to Rh50 found in Nitrosomonas europea14, in contrast to most ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria that have the high-affinity AmtB-type proteins. Both species encoded ureases and the corresponding ABC transport systems, indicating that urea could be used as an alternative ammonium source. Interestingly, Candidatus Nitrospira inopinata, the moderately thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing Nitrospira described by Daims et al.15, encoded a similar set of AMO, HAO and urease proteins, and also lacked genes for assimilatory nitrite reduction. Unlike the two species described here, however, it contained a periplasmic cytochrome c nitrite reductase (NrfA) that could allow it to conserve energy by dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonium (DNRA), but might also provide ammonium for assimilation. The evolutionary divergence of these organisms was also reflected in the low ANI values of 70.3–71.6% between Candidatus N. inopinata and the two species described here. Concerning their genetic repertoire for nitrite oxidation, sp.2 had four almost identical (>99% amino acid identity) NXR alpha and beta (NxrAB) subunits. Sp.1 had two nxrAB copies encoding identical NxrB subunits, but NxrA subunits with amino acid identities of 89.6%, which were separated into distinct clusters in phylogenetic analyses. One homologue branched with sequences from Nitrospira moscoviensis, while the other formed a novel sequence cluster together with the sequences from sp.2 (Extended Data Fig. 3). To ascertain that ammonia oxidation occurred under hypoxic conditions in the enrichment culture, we supplied the bioreactor with 15N-labelled ammonium. While the anammox bacteria consumed 15NH + and converted it into 29N , a steady increase of 30N was also observed (Fig. 1a). This formation of 30N could only be explained by the production of 15N-labelled nitrite derived through aerobic ammonium oxidation. As metagenomic analyses confirmed that the Nitrospira species were the only organism in the enrichment harbouring AMO and HAO, this clearly showed that they were able to perform this reaction even at O concentrations lower than 3.1 μM. To unambiguously link this activity to Nitrospira, we visualized the AMO protein in situ using batch incubations with reactor biomass and FTCP (fluorescein thiocarbamoylpropargylamine), a fluorescently labelled acetylene analogue that acts as suicide substrate for AMO16 and covalently binds to the enzyme17. When counterstained with Nitrospira-specific FISH probes, including a newly designed probe specifically targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA-defined phylogenetic group comprising spp.1 and 2 (Extended Data Table 2 and Extended Data Fig. 4), strong FTCP labelling of Nitrospira cells was observed, providing strong support for the presence of the ammonia-oxidizing enzyme at the single-cell level (Fig. 2b and Extended Data Fig. 5). Batch incubations were performed at ambient oxygen concentrations to determine conversion rates of ammonium and nitrite, the level of inhibition by allylthiourea (ATU; a potent inhibitor of bacterial ammonia oxidation18, 19), and the use of urea as ammonium source for nitrification. Flocs were mechanically disrupted to ensure complete exposure of the biomass to oxygen, which inhibits the anammox and denitrification processes20, 21. This inhibition was confirmed by the lack of labelled N formation in incubations with 15NH +. In these incubations (Fig. 1 and Extended Data Fig. 6), the culture oxidized ammonium (6.0 ± 1.0 μM h−1 NH +) and nitrite (23 ± 4.7 μM h−1 NO −) to nitrate. ATU selectively inhibited ammonia oxidation, but did not affect nitrite oxidation rates. Urea was converted to ammonium, which was subsequently oxidized to nitrate (7.8 ± 1.1 μM h−1 NO −), suggesting that these Nitrospira species were capable of using urea as source of ammonia to drive nitrification, as was also reported for some ammonia-oxidizing archaea22 and bacteria23. This trait could enable them to thrive in environments like fertilized soils, wastewater treatment plants, and many aquatic systems where urea is often present at micromolar levels24. However, it should be noted that the two Nitrospira spp. were not the only organisms in the enrichment culture that encoded ureases. To investigate substrate-dependent inorganic carbon fixation as a proxy for energy conservation from ammonia and nitrite oxidation, we used FISH in combination with microautoradiography (FISH-MAR)25. Aerobic incubations with mechanically disrupted flocs were performed in the presence of 500 μM ammonium, 500 μM ammonium with 100 μM ATU, or 500 μM nitrite. Nitrospira incorporated carbon from 14C-labelled bicarbonate in the presence of either ammonium or nitrite, and ammonia-dependent carbon fixation was strongly inhibited by the addition of ATU (Fig. 2c and Extended Data Fig. 7). Only flocs containing Nitrospira were labelled during all incubations, suggesting that these were the only chemolithoautotrophic nitrifying organisms present in the culture and indeed could conserve energy from the oxidation of ammonia and nitrite. In 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic analyses, the two ammonia-oxidizing Nitrospira species from our enrichment culture formed two separate lineages within one strongly supported sequence cluster affiliated with Nitrospira sublineage II26 (Extended Data Fig. 4). They both grouped with highly similar sequences (>99% nucleotide identity) from a diverse range of habitats, including soil, groundwater, recirculation aquaculture systems, wastewater treatment plants and drinking water distribution systems. The formation of distinct clusters containing sp.1 and sp.2 indicated that the last common ancestor encoded genes for complete nitrification and that this pathway might be conserved in most organisms affiliated with this sequence group. To explore the environmental relevance of these Nitrospira, we searched the NCBI nr database27 for closely related amoA genes. Surprisingly, we found the AmoA proteins of the two Nitrospira species to be phylogenetically divergent from the described bacterial AmoA sequences. Nitrospira sp.2 AmoA was 97–98% identical to the so-called “unusual” methane monooxygenase (PMO) proteins of Crenothrix polyspora28. The two AmoA copies from Nitrospira sp.1 had lower similarities to Crenothrix PmoA (90–91% identity), but also affiliated with this group (Fig. 4). Sequences within this group cannot be amplified by standard amoA primers, but only by pmoA primers when used at reduced stringency29. Therefore the public databases only contain few closely related sequences, which were mainly derived from habitats studied for their bacterial methane-oxidizing communities. Highly similar sequences derived from wastewater treatment plants and drinking water systems, however, indicated occurrence of ammonia-oxidizing Nitrospira in a range of engineered and natural environments. We furthermore screened all publicly available shotgun data sets on MG-RAST30. Indeed, 168 metagenomes (out of 6,255) and 28 metatranscriptomes (out of 1,051) contained at least two reads affiliated with this amoA group, yielding a total of 3,727 reads that were obtained mainly from soil, sediments and wastewater treatment plants (Extended Data Table 3). Thus, our results showed that the Crenothrix sequence group consists of so far unrecognized AMO sequences overlooked in nitrification studies based on amoA gene detection. Based on these findings, it is highly likely that the PCR-based determination of the Crenothrix pmoA gene from an environmental sample28 was erroneous, and this cluster only contains genes encoding AMOs. Nevertheless, with the currently available information it cannot be excluded that certain Crenothrix species attained an amoA gene through lateral gene transfer and use the encoded protein as a surrogate PMO. In conclusion, here we demonstrated the existence of complete nitrification in a single organism (comammox) and identified two Nitrospira species capable of catalysing this process (equation (3)). In 16S rRNA or amoA/pmoA-based studies these organisms would have been classified as nitrite-oxidizing or methane-oxidizing bacteria, respectively. Hence, our results show that a whole group of ammonia-oxidizing organisms was previously overlooked. Our findings furthermore disprove the long-held assumption that nitrification (ammonia oxidation via nitrite to nitrate) is catalysed by two distinct functional groups, thus redefining a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Based on their physiology, differences in genome content, and separation in different phylogenetic groups in 16S rRNA-based analyses, we propose tentative names for both Nitrospira species present in our enrichment: Candidatus Nitrospira nitrosa (etymology: L. fem. adj. nitrosa, nitrous; the nitrite and nitrate forming Nitrospira) for sp.1 and Candidatus Nitrospira nitrificans (N.L. part. adj. nitrificans, nitrifying; the nitrifying Nitrospira) for sp.2. Both species are chemolithoautotrophic and fully oxidize ammonia via nitrite to nitrate.

Gao, Xu, Hao and Wiesenfeld Hallin | Date: 2015-03-25

Provided are an analgesic pharmaceutical composition and a method for relieving pain. Specifically, by combination sinomenine with gamma - aminobutyric acid (GABA) drug or analgesic medicament such as paracetamol, the analgesic composition has excellent synergistic effect on analgesia.

An apparatus for AC physical signals measurement and data acquisition and the method for the same are provided. The apparatus for AC physical signals measurement and data acquisition comprises an analog sampling channel for inputting an AC signal and outputting an analog sampling value; a sampling switch for performing re-sampling to obtain data frequency as required by the receiving side; a register for storing a re-sampling value from the sampling switch; a bus for outputting the re-sampling value in the register to the receiving side; a timing controller for controlling the analog sampling channel and the re-sampling frequency of the sampling switch; and a digital low-pass filter, which has an input connected with the analog sampling value outputted by the analog sampling channel and an output connected with the sampling switch, filters out high frequency components from the sampling value, and has a cut-off frequency that should be lower than 0.5 times the re-sampling frequency of the sampling switch. The apparatus and method for AC physical signals measurement and data acquisition improve accuracy of remote measurement for electric power physical quantities. Not only waveform values are outputted by re-sampling, effective values, steady state values and their fundamental/harmonic wave effective values and steady state values are also outputted. Thus, various requirements by the receiving side on remote measurement data are satisfied.

The invention discloses a method and system for identifying an element parameter and a power correction factor of an electric power system. The method comprises: inputting an active power telemetering steady state value P, a reactive power telemetering steady state value Q, and a voltage telemetering state value of a power grid with n elements, to establish +j+jQ+G(,P,Q) for telemetering power, where G(,P,Q) is power correction function regarding P and Q, and is power correction factor; establishing F(Y,)=0 , where Y is an admittance matrix of the n elements; setting F(Y,)= and J=, minimizing J, and determining Y and ; restoring element parameters including resistance R, reactance X and susceptance B from Y; and outputting R,X,B and . The method can identify element parameters and power correction factor with high identification accuracy improve qualified rate of state estimation and improve accuracy of applications such as stability analysis, stability checking and stability control, etc.

The present invention relates to a data sampling method: sampling a physical quantity according to a sampling frequency f f, f= / being the upper limit of the sampling frequency; and a data sampling method and system: sampling a physical quantity with a sampling frequency satisfying Nyquist theorem, firstly performing digital low-pass filtering on an obtained sampled sequence, and then re-sampling, the re-sampling frequency f / , where is the Z-domain error of a sampling system, and is the maximum error of an S-domain. The present invention also relates to a parameter identification method and system which firstly adopt the above data sampling method and system to obtain sampled data, and then utilize the sampled data to perform dynamic and/or static parameter identification. The data sampling method and system and the parameter identification method and system of the present invention solve technical difficulties such as relatively large errors in sampled data, digital control instability, and parameter identification failure.

The invention discloses a method for identifying full parameters of an electric element by a fault recording data, comprising steps: inputting fault recording data related to an electric element; conducting data processing on the fault recording data; identifying full parameters of the element by intercepted data and a differential equation of the full parameters of the element; and outputting an identified result. Further proposed are a system for identifying full parameters of a power generator by fault recording data and a method for locating a line fault point with fault recording data. With the implementation of the invention, a fault resistance and full parameters of an element such as an electric line and a transformer, etc. can be identified. The invention can obtain full parameters of a fault element and also a non-fault element, and the parameters precision would be increased from the current 20% to less than 1%.

Hao | Date: 2010-09-15

A grinding device of vertical grinder, comprising a driving device (1); a vertical grinding barrel (2) which is driven by the driving device; a grinding roller (3); and a pressure applying device (4) acting on the grinding roller (3); a running-in surface is composed of the roller surface of the grinding roller and the grinding surface (6) of the inner lining of the vertical grinding barrel, and the angular separation between the grinding surface (6) of the inner lining of the vertical grinding barrel and the vertical line is 40 degrees to -5 degrees. The device is also provided with a material-shaving device (9).

Provided is a method for acquiring continuous physical signal such as temperature, pressure and the like. The method comprises the following steps: inputting a voltage signal u representing continuous physical signal; obtaining a sampled signal u_(k) of an analog voltage through an analog sampling channel (1), wherein the sampling frequency is fh; performing digital low-pass filtering on the u_(k) (6) to obtain a voltage signal u_(k) subjected to low-pass filtering, and resampling the u_(k) to obtain a resample signal u_(j), wherein the resampling frequency fy is the same as the sampling frequency required by an application terminal and the sampling frequency fh is M times of the resampling frequency fy; and storing and outputting the resample signal u_(j) to the application terminal. Provided also is a corresponding device. The cost of the analog sampling channel is lowered; the u_(j) can be directly applied to industrial automation for substitution of the u_(j), especially output signals do not contain transient values, the requirements of a stable model on input quantity can be met, the random disturbance can be inhibited, and the measurement accuracy can be improved.

The present invention provides a hydraulic cylinder, an oil pumping unit, an oil pumping module and an oil pumping system. The hydraulic cylinder provided in the present invention comprises a hydraulic cylinder body, a piston, a first piston rod and a second piston rod; said second piston rod extending out of the hydraulic cylinder in a direction opposite to that of the first piston rod. Said oil pumping unit comprises said hydraulic cylinder and a first oil-well pump that engages the first piston rod. Said oil pumping module comprises such an oil pumping unit, a control mechanism and a hydraulic driving mechanism. Said oil pumping system is composed of one or a plurality of above recited oil pumping modules, each is connected with the final oil outlet through an oil pipeline that is connected with its own oil outlet opening. Compared with prior arts, the oil pumping system of the present invention comprises less components and its configuration is much simpler; it also characterized of simpler transmission mechanism and more efficient transmission mechanism, further, since the present invention employs groupware/module assembly, therefore, the installation is much simpler and highly flexible, and the reliability and safety of the system have been markedly improved.

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