Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute

Seoul, South Korea

Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute

Seoul, South Korea

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Kim J.Y.,Korea University | Shaker M.R.,Korea University | Lee J.-H.,Korea University | Lee B.,Korea University | And 7 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2016

Abstract: Neurogenesis occurs spontaneously in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle in adult rodent brain, but it has long been debated whether there is sufficient adult neurogenesis in human SVZ. Subcallosal zone (SCZ), a posterior continuum of SVZ closely associated with posterior regions of cortical white matter, has also been reported to contain adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) in both rodents and humans. However, little is known whether SCZ-derived aNSC (SCZ-aNSCs) can produce cortical neurons following brain injury. We found that SCZ-aNSCs exhibited limited neuronal differentiation potential in culture and after transplantation in mice. Neuroblasts derived from SCZ initially migrated toward injured cortex regions following brain injury, but later exhibited apoptosis. Overexpression of anti-apoptotic bcl-xL in the SCZ by retroviral infection rescued neuroblasts from cell death in the injured cortex, but neuronal maturation was still limited, resulting in atrophy. In combination with Bcl-xL, infusion of brain-derived neurotropic factor rescued atrophy, and importantly, a subset of such SCZ-aNSCs differentiated and attained morphological and physiological characteristics of mature, excitatory neurons. These results suggest that the combination of anti-apoptotic and neurotrophic factors might enable the use of aNSCs derived from the SCZ in cortical neurogenesis for neural replacement therapy. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

Park H.-J.,Hanyang University | Park H.-J.,Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute | Kim D.-H.,Hanyang University | Kim D.-H.,Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. Although studies of PPARγ ligands have demonstrated its regulatory functions in inflammation and adaptive immunity, its intrinsic role in T cells and autoimmunity has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we used CD4- PPARγKO mice to investigate PPARγ-deficient T cells, which were hyper-reactive to produce higher levels of cytokines and exhibited greater proliferation than wild type T cells with increased ERK and AKT phosphorylation. Diminished expression of IκBα, Sirt1, and Foxo1, which are inhibitors of NF-κB, was observed in PPARγ-deficient T cells that were prone to produce all the signature cytokines under Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 skewing condition. Interestingly, 1-year-old CD4- PPARγKO mice spontaneously developed moderate autoimmune phenotype by increased activated T cells, follicular helper T cells (T FH cells) and germinal center B cells with glomerular inflammation and enhanced autoantibody production. Sheep red blood cell immunization more induced TFH cells and germinal centers in CD4- PPARγKO mice and the T cells showed increased of Bcl-6 and IL-21 expression suggesting its regulatory role in germinal center reaction. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARγ has a regulatory role for TFH cells and germinal center reaction to prevent autoimmunity. © 2014 Park et al.

Choi J.-M.,Hanyang University | Choi J.-M.,Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute | Sohn J.-H.,Hanyang University | Sohn J.-H.,Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Immunology Letters | Year: 2012

Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is an important transcription factor for the production of interleukin (IL)-2 upon T-cell receptor (TcR) signaling. Therefore, inhibition of the NFAT-carcineurin pathway is an important target for inflammatory disease inhibition and graft rejection. A novel cell permeable peptide (CPP), Sim-2, has been identified from a human transcription factor, and Sim-2-CPP conjugated to . β-galactosidase or EGFP protein was efficiently delivered into cells . in vitro and . in vivo. A cell permeable form of the NFAT inhibitory peptide VIVIT (Sim-2-VIVIT) was synthesized and showed inhibitory effects on human CD4 or CD8 T-cell activation through NFAT transcriptional activity suppression and IL-2 inhibition. Intranasal administration of the Sim-2-VIVIT peptide in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model alleviated peribronchial and perivascular infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung and caused airway remodeling and airway hyper-responsiveness. These results suggest that cell permeable Sim-2-VIVIT peptide has clinical potential as an immunosuppressive agent for inflammatory diseases. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Lee J.E.,Hanyang University | Lee J.E.,Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute | Lim M.S.,Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute | Lim M.S.,Hanyang University | And 6 more authors.
NeuroToxicology | Year: 2014

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides with several harmful effects, including neurotoxicity. Although many studies have addressed the neurotoxicity induced by CPF, most data on neurodevelopmental damage was obtained from animal models. We are the first group to use human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a developing neuron model to evaluate the mechanisms involved in CPF-induced neurotoxicity. CPF was cytotoxic to these cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as shown by decreased cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase release. Furthermore, CPF reduced the expression of AKT and ERK proteins which are involved in intracellular survival pathways. Exposure of hNPCs to CPF led to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the antioxidant N-acetyl-cystein (NAC) attenuated ROS production induced by CPF. In addition, CPF increased cytochrome c release into the cytosol and activated caspase-9 and -3, indicating that cell death induced by CPF was due to apoptosis in hNPCs. Consistent with these findings, CPF treatment reduced the level of Bcl-2 protein and increased the level of Bax protein. Especially, CPF increased the translocation of BAX into the mitochondria. CPF also induced nuclear accumulation of NF-κB and p53 proteins in a concentration-dependent manner, and their inhibitors attenuated CPF-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, an inhibitor of NF-κB nuclear translocation blocked the increase of p53 in CPF-treated hNPCs. These findings show that CPF induced hNPCs death in part through NF-κB activation via ROS generation, enabling the interaction of p53 with Bcl-2 and Bax and subsequent release of cytochrome c. Collectively, these results represent a unique molecular characterization of CPF-induced cytotoxicity in hNPCs. These data suggest that CPF may affect neurodevelopment in a manner similar to that of several known and suspected neurotoxicants. © 2014.

Lee J.E.,Hanyang University | Lee J.E.,Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute | Lim M.S.,Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute | Lim M.S.,Hanyang University | And 7 more authors.
Stem Cells Translational Medicine | Year: 2016

Phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN) is a widely known negative regulator of insulin/ phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. The PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) and Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) signaling pathways are the chief mechanisms controlling the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the roles of PTEN in Akt/mTOR and ERK signaling during proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human NSCs (hNSCs) are poorly understood. Treatment of proliferating hNSCs with a specific inhibitor of PTEN or overexpression of the PTEN inactive mutant G129E resulted in an increase in the expression levels of Ki67, p-S6 kinase (p-S6K), and p-ERK without affecting p-Akt expression during proliferation of hNSCs. Therefore, we focused on the regulatory effect of PTEN in S6K and ERK signaling during dopaminergic neuronal differentiation of hNSCs. Overexpression of PTEN during neuronal differentiation of hNSCs caused an increase in p-S6K expression and a decrease in p-ERK expression. Conversely, inhibition of PTEN increased p-ERK expression and decreased p-S6K expression. Inhibition of ERK by a specific chemical inhibitor, U0126, promoted neuronal generation, especially of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons. p-S6K expression increased in a time-dependent manner during differentiation, and this effect was enhanced by U0126. These results indicated that PTEN promoted neuronal differentiation by inhibition of ERK signaling, which in turn induced activation of S6K. Our data suggest that ERK pathways participate in crosstalk with S6K through PTEN signaling during neuronal differentiation of hNSCs. These results represent a novel pathway by which PTEN may modulate the interplay between ERK and S6K signaling, leading to increased neuronal differentiation in hNSCs. © AlphaMed Press 2016.

PubMed | Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute and Hanyang University
Type: | Journal: Neurotoxicology | Year: 2015

Recent studies have demonstrated that dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, mediates mitochondria-dependent apoptosis through mitochondrial division. However, little is known about the mechanism by which Drp1 modulates apoptosis in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced toxicity. In this study, we determined that CPF-induced mitochondrial apoptosis is mediated by Drp1 translocation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our results showed that CPF treatment induced intrinsic apoptosis by activating caspase-9, caspase-3, and cytochrome c release in SH-SY5Y cells. Cytosolic Drp1 translocated to the mitochondria in CPF-treated cells and was phosphorylated at Ser616. Treating cells with CPF induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Inhibiting this ROS generation and MAPK activation abolished CPF-induced expression of phospho-Drp1. Furthermore, Drp1 was required for p53 to translocate to the mitochondria under CPF-induced oxidative stress. Treating cells with mitochondrial-division inhibitor-1 (mdivi-1), which blocks Drp1 translocation, increased the viability of CPF-treated cells by abrogating Drp1 translocation and caspase-3 activation. Specifically, pretreating cells with mdivi-1 inhibited Bax translocation to the mitochondria by blocking p53 signaling. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism by which Drp1 activates mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and indicate that inhibiting Dpr1 function can protect against CPF-induced cytotoxicity. We propose that inhibiting Drp1 is a possible therapeutic approach for pesticide-induced toxicity when hyperactivated Drp1 contributes to pathology.

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