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Vienna, Austria

Kleinsasser A.T.,Innsbruck Medical University | Pircher I.,Innsbruck Medical University | Truebsbach S.,Innsbruck Medical University | Knotzer H.,Klinikum Wels | And 2 more authors.

BACKGROUND:: During emergence from anesthesia, breathing 100% oxygen is frequently used to provide a safety margin toward hypoxemia in case an airway problem occurs. Oxygen breathing has been shown to cause pulmonary gas exchange disorders in healthy individuals. This study investigates how oxygen breathing during emergence affects lung function specifically whether oxygen breathing causes added hypoxemia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS:: This trial has been conducted in a parallel-arm, case-controlled, open-label manner. Fifty-three patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were randomly allocated (computer-generated lists) to breathe either 100 or 30% oxygen balanced with nitrogen during emergence from anesthesia. Arterial blood gas measurements were taken before induction and at 5, 15, and 60 min after extubation. RESULTS:: All participants tolerated the study well. Patients treated with 100% oxygen had a higher alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure gradient (primary outcome) compared with patients treated with 30% oxygen (25 vs. 20 mmHg) and compared with their baseline at the 60-min measurement (25 vs. 17 mmHg). At the 60-min measurement, arterial partial pressure of oxygen was lower in the 100% group (62 vs. 67 mmHg). Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and pH were not different between groups or measurements. CONCLUSIONS:: In this experiment, the authors examined oxygen breathing during emergence-a widely practiced maneuver known to generate pulmonary blood flow heterogeneity. In the observed cohort of patients already presenting with pulmonary blood flow disturbances, emergence on oxygen resulted in deterioration of oxygen-related blood gas parameters. In the perioperative care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, oxygen breathing during emergence from anesthesia may need reconsideration. © 2014 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Source

Background: For decades, heparins and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been the gold standards in therapy of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The advent of factor IIa and Xa inhibitors provides new therapeutic options. Th e aim of this analysis is to compare the currently available new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with VKAs and also indirectly the NOACs with each other, as it is unlikely that a head-to-head comparison will ever be available. Patients and methods: In total, 27,024 patients were included in the RE-COVER, RE-COVER II, EINSTEIN DVT and PE, AMPLIFY and HOKUSAI studies with 13,511 in the VKA arm and 13,513 in the NOAC arm. Efficacy and safety endpoints were assessed by relative risks (RR) and absolute risk reductions (ARR) relative to VKA. Th e indirect comparison between the NOACs was performed according to ISPOR guidelines. Results: No differences between NOACs and VKA were found regarding recurrent VTE and death. Bleeding was significantly reduced by NOACs: major bleeding by rivaroxaban (RR 0.55; 0.38-0.81) and apixaban (RR 0.31; 0.17-0.55); major and clinically relevant non-major bleeding by dabigatran (RR 0.63; 0.51-0.77), apixaban (RR 0.44; 0.36-0.55) and edoxaban (RR 0.81; 0.71-0.93). The ARR for major bleeding was 1 % for rivaroxaban and apixaban; and for the composite bleeding endpoint 3.2 % for dabigatran, 5.4 % for apixaban, and 1.9 % for edoxaban. Regarding efficacy, no differences were found between NOACs. Apixaban reduced incidence of major bleeding more than dabigatran and edoxaban. Regarding occurrence of the composite bleeding endpoint, apixaban performed better than all other NOACs and dabigatran better than rivaroxaban and edoxaban. Conclusions: NOACs are as efficient in the treatment of VTE as VKA but with reduced risk of bleeding complications. Indirect comparisons indicate differences in the risk of clinically relevant bleeding events. Important issues such as monitoring and reversal of anticoagulation are still unresolved, but introduction of NOACs increased the therapeutic spectrum and thereby the potential for individualized therapy. © 2014 Hans Huber Publishers, Hogrefe AG, Bern. Source

Krauth M.-T.,Medical University of Vienna | Herndlhofer S.,Medical University of Vienna | Schmook M.-T.,Medical University of Vienna | Mitterbauer-Hohendanner G.,Medical University of Vienna | And 2 more authors.

Dasatinib is considered an effective drug in imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia. Although reported to be well-tolerated, severe events such as pleural or pericardial effusion have been reported at 140 mg daily. We examined our chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with dasatinib at 100 mg or 50 mg daily and identified 4 of 13 patients who developed marked effusion formation. In 2 patients, grade III/IV pleural and/or pericardial effusions were recorded. All 4 patients had received previous anti-leukemia therapy but none had preexisting cardiac or pulmonary diseases. In 3 patients, dasatinib had to be discontinued despite treatment with diuretics and glucocorticosteroids. In conclusion, dasatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia patients are at risk for the development of pleural and pericardial effusions even when the drug is administered at 100 mg or 50 mg daily. Therefore, all patients should be examined for pre-existing comorbidity and risk factors before starting dasatinib and all should have repeated chest Xrays during long-term dasatinib therapy. © 2011 Ferrata Storti Foundation. Source

Tripolt N.J.,Medical University of Graz | Narath S.H.,Joanneum Research | Eder M.,Medical University of Graz | Pieber T.R.,Medical University of Graz | And 2 more authors.
Cardiovascular Diabetology

Background: Patients with rapid progression of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) were shown to have a higher future risk for cardiovascular events.The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of multiple risk factor intervention on CIMT progression and to establish whether new cardiovascular surrogate measurements would allow prediction of CIMT changes.Materials and methods: In this prospective, open, 2-years study, we included 97 patients with type 2 diabetes and at least two insufficiently treated cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. HbA1c > 7.5% (58 mmol/mol); LDL-cholesterol >3.1 mmol/l or blood pressure >140/90 mmHg. Treatment was intensified according to current guidelines over 3 months with the aim to maintain intensification over 2 years.The primary outcome was the change in CIMT after 2 years. We also assessed markers of mechanical and biochemical endothelial function and endothelial progenitor cells before and after 3 months of treatment intensification. For testing differences between before and after multifactorial treatment measurements we used either the paired student's t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, depending on the distribution of the data. Additional, explorative statistical data analysis was done on CIMT progression building a linear multivariate regression model.Results: Blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure significantly improved during the first 3 months of intensified treatment, which was sustained over the 2-year study duration. Mean CIMT significantly decreased from baseline to 2 year (0.883 ± 0.120 mm vs. 0.860 ± 0.130 mm; p = 0.021). None of the investigated surrogate measures, however, was able to predict changes in IMT early after treatment intensification.Conclusions: Intensification of risk factor intervention in type 2 diabetes results in CIMT regression over a period of 2 years. None of the biomarkers used including endothelial function parameters or endothelial progenitor cells turned out to be useful to predict CIMT changes. Trial registration: Clinical Trial Registration - Unique identifier: NCT00660790. © 2014 Tripolt et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Sinzinger H.,Medical University of Vienna | Rodrigues M.,Hanusch Hospital | Kummer F.,Wilhelminen Hospital
Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine

Ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy is the diagnostic tool of choice for detection and monitoring of pulmonary embolism. However, the knowledge on its value for other or concurrent pathologies is poor. In this review scintigraphic characteristics of the main pathologies, interpretation and artefacts are described. Together with the understanding of pathophysiology of the lung, the potential gain of information derived from ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy is much higher than generally believed. In conclusion, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy not only in PE but also in other lung diseases is underused, its value and clinical potential underestimated. Source

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