Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases

Adelaide, Australia

Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases

Adelaide, Australia
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Finnie J.W.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Finnie J.W.,University of Adelaide
Veterinary Research Communications | Year: 2014

Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Donkin J.J.,University of Adelaide | Cernak I.,Johns Hopkins University | Blumbergs P.C.,University of Adelaide | Blumbergs P.C.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurotrauma | Year: 2011

Previous studies have demonstrated that the compound N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (NAT) reduces brain edema and improves functional outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study we examined whether this effect was mediated via the neurokinin-1 receptor, and whether there was an effect on axonal injury. We also explored whether the compound was effective, even when administered at delayed time points. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to acceleration-induced, diffuse TBI and administered NAT, its inactive D-enantiomer, or saline vehicle. In contrast to NAT (2.5 mg/kg), the inactive D-enantiomer was ineffective at improving rotarod motor performance after TBI. NAT also improved cognitive outcome as assessed by the Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests, and reduced axonal injury at 5 and 24 h after TBI as assessed by amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry. However, efficacy of the membrane-impermeable NAT was limited to administration within 5 h, whereas administration of a form of NAT, L-732,138 (47 mg/kg), in which a trifluoromethyl benzyl ester group has been added, making it highly lipid soluble and able to cross the intact blood-brain barrier, significantly improved motor outcome, even when administration was delayed by as much as 12 h. We conclude that the neuroprotective effects of NAT are receptor-mediated, and that administration of the membrane-permeable form of the compound can be effective even up to 12 h after TBI. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Finnie J.W.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Finnie J.W.,University of Adelaide | Manavis J.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Chidlow G.,South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology | Chidlow G.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2014

The epsilon toxin elaborated by Clostridium perfringens type D in the intestine of domestic livestock is principally responsible for the neurological disease produced after its absorption in excessive quantities into the systemic circulation. The fundamental basis of the cerebral damage induced by epsilon toxin appears to be microvascular injury with ensuing severe, diffuse vasogenic oedema. Endothelial barrier antigen (EBA), which is normally expressed by virtually all capillaries and venules in the rat brain, was used in this study as a marker of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. After exposure to high levels of circulating epsilon toxin, there was substantial loss of EBA in many brain microvessels, attended by widespread plasma albumin extravasation. These results support microvascular injury and subsequent BBB breakdown as a key factor in the pathogenesis of epsilon toxin-induced neurological disease. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Hanshaw D.M.,Gribbles Veterinary Pathology VETLAB | Finnie J.W.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Finnie J.W.,University of Adelaide | Manavis J.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Kessell A.E.,Gribbles Veterinary Pathology VETLAB
Australian Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015

Case report: An 18-month-old Angus cow presented with rapidly developing ataxia and subsequently died. The finding of large numbers of axonal spheroids in brainstem nuclei and spinal cord grey matter, bilaterally symmetrical in distribution, was consistent with a histopathological diagnosis of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD). Most of the axonal swellings were immunopositive to amyloid precursor protein, suggesting that interruption to axonal flow was important in their genesis. Conclusions: The topographical distribution of axonal spheroids in the brain and spinal cord in this bovine case closely resembled that found in the ovine neurodegenerative disorder termed NAD, in which axonal swellings are the major pathological feature. This appears to be the first reported case of this type of NAD in cattle. The aetiology of the spheroidal aggregations in this case was not determined. There was no evidence from the case history or neuropathology to indicate whether the axonal spheroids in this case involved an acquired or heritable aetiology. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.


Psaltis P.J.,University of Adelaide | Psaltis P.J.,Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science | Carbone A.,University of Adelaide | Nelson A.J.,University of Adelaide | And 9 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2010

Objectives This study set out to evaluate the safety and efficacy of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) delivered by multisegmental, transendocardial implantation in the setting of nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM). Background Prospectively isolated MPC have shown capacity to mediate cardiovascular repair in myocardial ischemia. However, their efficacy in NICM remains undetermined. Methods Mesenchymal precursor cells were prepared from ovine bone marrow by immunoselection using the tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, or STRO-3, monoclonal antibody. Fifteen sheep with anthracycline-induced NICM were assigned to catheter-based, transendocardial injections of allogeneic MPC (n = 7) or placebo (n = 8), under electromechanical mapping guidance. Follow-up was for 8 weeks, with end points assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance, echocardiography, and histology. Results Intramyocardial injections were distributed similarly throughout the left ventricle in both groups. Cell transplantation was associated with 1 death late in follow-up, compared with 3 early deaths among placebo animals. Left ventricular end-diastolic size increased in both cohorts, but MPC therapy attenuated end-systolic dilation and stabilized ejection fraction, with a nonsignificant increase (37.3 ± 2.8% before, 39.2 ± 1.4% after) compared with progressive deterioration after placebo (38.8 ± 4.4% before, 32.5 ± 4.9% after, p < 0.05). Histological outcomes of cell therapy included less fibrosis burden than in the placebo group and an increased density of karyokinetic cardiomyocytes and myocardial arterioles (p < 0.05 for each). These changes occurred in the presence of modest cellular engraftment after transplantation. Conclusions Multisegmental, transendocardial delivery of cell therapy can be achieved effectively in NICM using electromechanical navigation. The pleiotropic properties of immunoselected MPC confer benefit to nonischemic cardiac disease, extending their therapeutic potential beyond the setting of myocardial ischemia. © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Blair I.P.,Concord Hospital | Blair I.P.,University of Sydney | Williams K.L.,Concord Hospital | Warraich S.T.,Concord Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Objective: FUS gene mutations were recently identified in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The present studies sought to define the clinical, post-mortem and neurophysiological phenotypes in ALS families with FUS mutations and to determine the frequency of FUS mutations in familial and sporadic ALS. Methods: FUS was screened for mutations in familial and sporadic ALS cases. Clinical, post-mortem and neurophysiological features of large families with FUS mutations are described. Results and conclusions: FUS mutations were evident in 3.2% (4/124) of familial ALS, representing the second most common gene abnormality to be described in familial ALS after SOD1. No mutations were present in 247 sporadic ALS cases. The clinical presentation in 49 affected patients was consistent with a predominantly lower motor neuron disorder, supported by post-mortem findings. Upper motor neuron involvement varied, with Wallerian degeneration of corticospinal tracts present in one post-mortem case but absent in a second case from the same family. Features of cortical hyperexcitability demonstrated upper motor neuron involvement consistent with other forms of familial and sporadic ALS. One case presented with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) indicating that this may be a rare presenting feature in families with FUS mutation. Ubiquitin-positive cytoplasmic skein-like inclusions were present in lower motor neurons, but in contrast to sporadic ALS, no TDP-43 pathology was evident. Mutation-specific clinical features were identified. Patients with a R521C mutation were significantly more likely to develop disease at a younger age, and dropped-head syndrome was a frequent feature. Reduced disease penetrance was evident among most affected families.


Finnie J.W.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Manavis J.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Blumbergs P.C.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Non-accidental head injury ("shaken baby syndrome") is a major cause of death and disability in infants and young children, but it is uncertain whether shaking alone is sufficient to cause brain damage or an additional head impact is required. Accordingly, we used manual shaking in an ovine model in an attempt to answer this question since lambs have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling a human infant. Neuronal perikaryal and axonal reactions were quantified 6 hours after shaking using amyloid precursor protein (APP) immunohistochemistry. Neuronal perikaryal APP was widely distributed in the brain and spinal cord, the first time such a diffuse neuronal stress response after shaking has been demonstrated, but axonal immunoreactivity was minimal and largely confined to the rostral cervical spinal cord at the site of maximal loading. No ischaemic-hypoxic damage was found in haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Crown Copyright © 2009.


Finnie J.W.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Blumbergs P.C.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Manavis J.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2011

Cerebral contusions are one of the principal lesions of traumatic brain injury and the attendant oedema formation contributes substantially to the clinicopathological manifestations. While it is now recognised that the membrane channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) plays a major role in the development and resolution of cerebral oedema, assessments of its expression in and around contusions have produced conflicting results. We used an ovine impact-acceleration model of closed head injury to examine contusion-related AQP-4 expression and found that there was a heterogeneous AQP-4 response within contusions, with some astrocytes being nonviable and immunonegative, while others showed increased AQP-4 expression. Pericontusional astrocytes in the penumbra region generally showed more robust AQP-4 immunopositivity than intracontusional glia. Thus, manipulation of AQP-4 expression could have therapeutic applications in controlling cerebral oedema associated with contusions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Finnie J.W.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases
Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia | Year: 2013

Expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos, was examined in a large animal model of non-accidental head injury ("shaken baby syndrome"). Lambs were used because they have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling a human infant. Neonatal lambs were manually shaken in a manner similar to that believed to occur with most abused human infants, but there was no head impact. The most striking c-fos expression was in meningothelial cells of the cranial cervical spinal cord and, to a lesser degree, in hemispheric, cerebellar, and brainstem meninges. Vascular endothelial cells also frequently showed c-fos immunopositivity in the meninges and hemispheric white matter. It was hypothesised that this c-fos immunoreactivity was due to mechanical stress induced by shaking, with differential movement of different craniospinal components. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Finnie J.W.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Cai Z.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Manavis J.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Helps S.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases | Blumbergs P.C.,Hanson Institute Center for Neurological Diseases
Pathology | Year: 2010

Aim: To determine whether acute or long-term exposure of the brain to mobile telephone radiofrequency (RF) fields produces activation of microglia, which normally respond rapidly to any change in their microenvironment. Methods: Using a purpose designed exposure system at 900 MHz, mice were given a single, far-field whole body exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg for 60min (acute) or on five successive days per week for 104 weeks (long-term). Control mice were sham-exposed or freely mobile in a cage to control for any stress caused by immobilisation in the exposure module. Positive control brains subjected to a stab wound were also included to confirm the ability of microglia to react to any neural stress. Brains were perfusion-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and representative regions of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus immunostained for ionised calcium binding adaptor molecule (Iba1), a specific microglial marker. Results: There was no increase in microglial Iba1 expression in brains short or long-term exposed to mobile telephony microwaves compared to control (sham-exposed or freely moving caged mice) brains, while substantial microglial activation occurred in damaged positive control neural tissue. Conclusion: Acute (60minutes) or longer duration (2 years) exposure of murine brains to mobile telephone RF fields did not produce any microglial activation detectable by Iba1 immunostaining. © 2010 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia.

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