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Van der Sloot H.A.,Hans van der Sloot Consultancy | Kosson D.S.,Vanderbilt University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

The evaluation of the hazardous nature of a waste is frequently based on total composition in many jurisdictions, while for most cases the chemical form of the constituents and the release pathways that may result in exposure of man and organisms under conditions of handling, transport, disposal or beneficial use are the most important factors controlling potential environmental impact. Thus, leaching assessment related to possible management scenarios rather than total content can provide a much more robust basis for evaluating health risks and environmental risks for waterborne pathways. Standardized characterisation leaching tests based on intrinsic characteristics of a material provide a new foundation for needed decisions. Chemical speciation modelling using characterisation testing results provides a means to identify mechanisms controlling constituent release, including mineral or sorptive phases, and thus insights into the long-term release behaviour of the material and approaches to reducing potential impacts. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Allegrini E.,Technical University of Denmark | Butera S.,Technical University of Denmark | Kosson D.S.,Vanderbilt University | Van Zomeren A.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands | And 2 more authors.
Waste Management | Year: 2015

Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results of the study, recommendations are provided regarding the use of leaching data in LCA studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Hjelmar O.,Wageningen University | Van Der Sloot H.A.,Hans van der Sloot Consultancy | Comans R.N.J.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands | Wahlstrom M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland
Waste and Biomass Valorization | Year: 2013

Waste-derived aggregates are being considered as possible candidates for development of End-of-Waste (EoW) criteria at European Union (EU) level in accordance with Article 6 (1) of the EU Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) as a means of increasing the recovery of resources from waste. If a waste-derived aggregate achieves EoW status, it will become a (construction) product and hence be regulated by the Construction Products Regulation (CPR) which means that in most EU Member States there will be no applicable environmental protection regulation. It is therefore important that the criteria a waste-derived aggregate must fulfil to achieve and maintain EoW status ensure sufficient protection of the environment and human health. It is shown that EoW criteria that do not include restrictions on the conditions of the use of waste-derived aggregates for specific construction purposes will result in leaching limit values that are so stringent that very few, if any, waste-derived aggregates can meet them. It is therefore roposed to impose restrictions and conditions on the use aspart of possible future EoW criteria for waste-derived aggregates, and a step-wise methodology for development of more realistic leaching limit values for EoWis outlined. The methodology incorporates the mitigating effects of various measures that reduce the potential environmental impact of construction applications with waste-derived aggregates. Recommendations are also made of the practical testing and documentation procedures for aggregates with EoW status within the framework of the CPR. © The Author(s) 2013.

van der Sloot H.A.,Hans van der Sloot Consultancy | van Zomeren A.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands
Mine Water and the Environment | Year: 2012

A pH dependent leaching test (CEN/TS 14429) and a percolation leaching test (CEN/TS 14405) developed in CEN/TC 292 have been used for the first time to characterise the release behaviour of different sulphidic mining wastes. Geochemical speciation modeling using LeachXS Orchestra provides another type of partitioning between mineral and sorptive phases than is currently practised in the mining industry. Comparing new leaching test data for seven tailings and two waste rock samples with model predictions gives new insights into release behaviour. In leaching, mineral transformations on the surface of waste rock or tailings particles, rather than bulk mineral composition, dictate release, which implies that mineralogical examinations are not necessarily relevant from a leaching perspective. Kinetic aspects of release from sulphidic waste can be addressed by testing material in different stages of oxidation or exposure to atmospheric conditions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Kosson D.S.,Vanderbilt University | Garrabrants A.C.,Vanderbilt University | DeLapp R.,Vanderbilt University | van der Sloot H.A.,Hans van der Sloot Consultancy
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Current concerns about the environmental safety of coal combustion fly ash have motivated this evaluation of the impact of fly ash use as a cement replacement in concrete materials on the leaching of constituents of potential concern. The chemical effects of fly ash on leaching were determined through characterization of liquid-solid partitioning using EPA Method 1313 for four fly ash materials as well as concrete and microconcrete materials containing 0% (control materials), 25% and 45% replacement of portland cement with the fly ash source. All source materials, concrete formulations and replacement levels are representative of US concrete industry practices. Eluate concentrations as a function of pH were compared to a broader range of available testing results for international concretes and mortars for which the leaching characteristics of the component fly ashes were unknown. The chemistry of the hydrated cement fraction was found to dominate the liquid-solid partitioning resulting in reduced leaching concentrations of most trace metals compared to concentrations from fly ash materials alone. Compared to controls, eluate concentrations of Sb, As, B, Cr, Mo, Se, Tl and V from concrete products containing fly ash were essentially the same as the eluate concentrations from control materials produced without fly ash replacement indicating little to no significant impact on aqueous partitioning. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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