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Holtsee, Germany

Schumacher H.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Schumacher H.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Paulsen H.M.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Gau A.E.,Leibniz University of Hanover | And 4 more authors.
Plant Breeding

Grain legumes are regarded as highly valuable protein source for human and animal nutrition. Legume protein quality is mainly limited by the amino acids (AAs) tryptophan and sulphur AA. Organic farming in particular requires high seed protein quality for livestock feeding, as chemically produced AAs must not be feeded. Breeding attempts to increase contents of limiting AA are required. In the present survey, the AA content of 107 cultivars of important European grain legume species (Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, Pisum sativum and Vicia faba) was analysed. AA contents were related to the requirements of growing pigs and human nutrition. Feed quality could be enhanced by choice of high quality varieties according to ideal protein concepts. For example for sulphur, AA feed quality for pigs could be increased by up to 22% (e.g. for L. angustifolius: ideal protein=100, sample mean=59.7, sample maximum=72.7). Regarding livestock nutrition, ranges of limiting AA never reached the qualities reported for soybean seeds. However, an inclusion of high quality legume lines would reduce the need for other high quality components in feed compositions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Flores F.,University of Huelva | Hybl M.,AGRITEC Ltd. | Knudsen J.C.,Toft Plant Breeding | Marget P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 11 more authors.
Field Crops Research

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a cool season grain legume whose acreage has constantly declined in traditional producer countries as it has been replaced by more productive cereal crops. However, faba bean is still considered to have great potential as rainfed crop. In order to satisfy the renewed interest in faba bean cultivation yield stability should be improved by exploiting different germplasm types and sowing seasons.In order to understand of genotype by environment interactions and to compare cultivar performance over years and locations a spring faba bean network was established with 20 cultivars grown over three crop seasons at 13 contrasting locations covering most of Europe. Analysis was performed by heritability-adjusted genotype plus genotype × environment interaction (HA-GGE) biplot analysis. HA-GGE biplot analyses identified that the effect of genotype by environment interaction was higher than the effect of genotypes, allowing identification of three mega-environments, namely Continental, Oceanic, and Mediterranean, in which cultivar performed differently. This supports the need for specific breeding for each specific geoclimatic area. Espresso was the highest yielding cultivar, being also highly stable over the Oceanic and Continental mega-environments. Cultivars Fuego, Hobbit and SR-1060 had also good yield but with a moderate unstability in both Oceanic and Continental mega-environments. Baraca and Alameda yielded poorly at all environments although were the best yielders at Mediterranean locations. Environments as Sumperk and Premesques were identified as the best core test locations for Continental and Oceanic mega-environments, respectively, being the locations in which best genotypes could be most easily identified. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Flores F.,University of Huelva | Nadal S.,IFAPA Centro del Llano | Solis I.,Agrovegetal S.A. | Winkler J.,Saatzucht Gleisdorf GesmH | And 7 more authors.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important grain legume widely grown as a spring crop to avoid frost damage. However, there is interest in winter types for the expected benefits in grain yield as compared to spring ones. In the current experiments, we compared field performance in autumn sowings of 15 faba bean winter-type cultivars that were sown in two consecutive autumns in 12 climatically contrasting sites in Austria, France, Germany, Spain, and the UK. GGE biplot analyses (genotype plus genotype-byenvironment interaction) were conducted to evaluate yield performance of faba bean genotypes and identification of mega-environments. Crossover genotypeenvironment was large and mainly due to the geoclimatic area. GGE biplot allowed identification of three mega-environments, namely continental, oceanic, and Mediterranean. Due to the climatic diversity of the environments, no cultivar performed well in all environments. Cultivars Clipper, Castel, Target, Wizard, and Gabl-107 performed well in oceanic mega-environment, whereas cultivars Castel, HIX, and Target performed well in continental mega-environment. None of the studied cultivars were suited to Mediterranean environments, and only Irena was able to give some modest yield at Cordoba. The average tester coordinate (defined by the average of first and second principal components of all environments) allowed to evaluate cultivars for their yielding ability and stability and to evaluate environments for their discriminating ability and to be more representative of the mega-environment. Thus, Wizard and Gabl-107 were the highest yielding cultivars being relatively stable over oceanic and continental environments. In contrast, the cultivars Irena and Divine yielded poorly at all environments. The results support the specific breeding for each major geoclimatic zone based on distinct genetic bases and selection environments.© INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2012. Source

Ali M.B.M.,University of Gottingen | Ali M.B.M.,Assiut University | Welna G.C.,University of Gottingen | Welna G.C.,Bayer CropScience | And 7 more authors.
Crop Science

In parts of Central Europe, such as Germany, climate change will lead to increasing area utilization for winter types of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) with improved tolerance to drought and freezing. Here, we present the first genome-wide association analysis focusing on drought and freezing stress in a set of 189 German winter faba bean lines. We assessed proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugars, water content, membrane stability, and chlorophyll content in leaves of juvenile plants, with and without drought stress. To describe freezing tolerance under growth chamber conditions, we monitored the freezing symptoms of juvenile plants, such as loss of color and turgidity, freezing survival, and regrowth after freezing— achieving medium to high repeatabilities (0.43 < h2 < 0.93). With 175 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays and 1147 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) assays, a total of 1322 (mostly mapped) DNA markers were utilized. We detected a total of 21 putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for six of the traits, each explaining 6 to 15% of the phenotypic variance. Several phenotypically promising inbred lines were identified. The present results will greatly improve the prospects for including winter faba bean into German crop rotations in the near future. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

Salama H.,University of Kiel | Losche M.,University of Kiel | Herrmann A.,University of Kiel | Gierus M.,University of Kiel | And 6 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science

Water-soluble carbohydrates and fibre fractions are important traits that influence forage utilization by the ruminant. Little is known about the quality variation among perennial ryegrass genotypes within the same maturity group or between near-isogenic diploids and tetraploids. The current study was carried out in the form of two experiments on two successive years (2006-2007) in three sites in Northern Germany. The main aim was to investigate the variation in nutritive value that could be attributed to differences in maturity among 20 intermediate heading perennial ryegrass genotypes or to differences in ploidy between near-isogenic diploids and tetraploids. Results of the first experiment revealed significant variation among the 20 tested genotypes in the investigated quality parameters that were consistent with the discovered variation in the maturity of the genotypes determined in terms of their Mean Stage by Count (MSC). In the second experiment, few but consistent significant differences were detected between near-isogenic diploids and tetraploids. The tetraploid derivatives had always significantly higher water-soluble carbohydrate content and lower neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) than their near-isogenic diploid parents. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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